Dr. Tak Wah Mak and the Discovery of T-Cell Receptor. Tak Mak was raised in Hong Kong and went to a religious school. His parents wanted him to become a doctor, but he had other ideas such as pursuing history, math, biology, and chemistry. Mak’s family migrated to the United States in the 1960s…..read more


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  • Rechargeable (Secondary) Batteries
    Rechargeable (Secondary) Batteries (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Nickel-cadmium, or NiCd, batteries (Figure 1) consist of a nickel-plated cathode, cadmium-plated anode, and a potassium hydroxide electrode. The positive and negative plates, which are prevented from shorting by the separator, are rolled together and put into the case. This is a “jelly-roll” design and allows the NiCd cell to deliver much more current than … Continue reading Rechargeable (Secondary) Batteries
  • Dr. Tak Wah Mak and the Discovery of T-Cell Receptor
    Dr. Tak Wah Mak and the Discovery of T-Cell Receptor Tak Mak was raised in Hong Kong and went to a religious school. His parents wanted him to become a doctor, but he had other ideas such as pursuing history, math, biology, and chemistry. Mak’s family migrated to the United States in the 1960s. Mak wanted to study at the University … Continue reading Dr. Tak Wah Mak and the Discovery of T-Cell Receptor
  • Single-Use Batteries
    Single-Use Batteries (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) A common primary battery is the dry cell, which uses a zinc can as both container and anode (“–” terminal) and a graphite rod as the cathode (“+” terminal). The Zn can is filled with an electrolyte paste containing manganese(IV) oxide, zinc(II) chloride, ammonium chloride, and water. A graphite rod is immersed in the electrolyte paste to … Continue reading Single-Use Batteries
  • Modern Guides to Attract More Website Visitors
    Modern Guides to Attract More Website Visitors Website can provide different powerful inbound marketing techniques that attract visitors with valuable and relevant information. Effective inbound marketing requires making a good relationship with the target audience and gaining their trust. As a website owner, you have probably taken the time and money to develop a user-friendly website to help drive engagement and … Continue reading Modern Guides to Attract More Website Visitors
  • Electrode and Cell Potentials
    Electrode and Cell Potentials (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Unlike the spontaneous oxidation of copper by aqueous silver(I) ions described in section 17.2, immersing a copper wire in an aqueous solution of lead(II) ions yields no reaction. The two species, Ag+(aq) and Pb2+(aq), thus show a distinct difference in their redox activity towards copper: the silver ion spontaneously oxidized copper, but the lead ion … Continue reading Electrode and Cell Potentials
  • Cell Notation
    Cell Notation (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Abbreviated symbolism is commonly used to represent a galvanic cell by providing essential information on its composition and structure. These symbolic representations are called cell notations or cell schematics, and they are written following a few guidelines: The relevant components of each half-cell are represented by their chemical formulas or element symbols All interfaces between component phases are represented … Continue reading Cell Notation
  • Research Highlights: SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant Resistant to Neutralization by Antibody
    SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant Resistant to Neutralization by Antibody The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617, also known as the delta variant, was originally discovered in India and is now spreading worldwide. The delta variant became dominant in parts of India and the United Kingdom, and further spread to other countries. The Delta variant had been detected in more than 80 countries, continues to mutate as … Continue reading Research Highlights: SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant Resistant to Neutralization by Antibody
  • Image: Spiraling Fractals of Romanesco Cauliflower
  • Galvanic Cells
    Galvanic Cells (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) As demonstration of spontaneous chemical change, Figure 1 shows the result of immersing a coiled wire of copper into an aqueous solution of silver nitrate. A gradual but visually impressive change spontaneously occurs as the initially colorless solution becomes increasingly blue, and the initially smooth copper wire becomes covered with a porous gray solid. These observations are consistent … Continue reading Galvanic Cells
  • Temperature Dependence of Spontaneity
    Temperature Dependence of Spontaneity (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The spontaneity of a process may depend upon the temperature of the system. Phase transitions, for example, will proceed spontaneously in one direction or the other depending upon the temperature of the substance in question. Likewise, some chemical reactions can also exhibit temperature-dependent spontaneities. To illustrate this concept, the equation relating free energy change … Continue reading Temperature Dependence of Spontaneity
  • Research Highlights: New Species of Parasitic Wasp Discovered in Ecuador
    Dolichomitus is a genus of Darwin wasps with large bodies, long ovipositors, and intense colors. Ovipositor is a female tubular organ used to deposit or lay eggs. The genus includes more than 75 species globally and 20 can be found in the Neotropics.
  • Predicting the Sign of ΔS (Entropy)
    OpenStax Chemistry 2e The relationships between entropy, microstates, and matter/energy dispersal described previously allow us to make generalizations regarding the relative entropies of substances and to predict the sign of entropy changes for chemical and physical processes. Consider the phase changes illustrated in Figure 1. In the solid phase, the atoms or molecules are restricted to nearly fixed positions with respect to … Continue reading Predicting the Sign of ΔS (Entropy)
  • Entropy and Microstates
    Entropy and Microstates (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Following the work of Carnot and Clausius, Ludwig Boltzmann developed a molecular-scale statistical model that related the entropy of a system to the number of microstates (W) possible for the system. A microstate is a specific configuration of all the locations and energies of the atoms or molecules that make up a system. The relation between a system’s entropy and the … Continue reading Entropy and Microstates
  • What is Entropy?
    What is Entropy? (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) In 1824, at the age of 28, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (Figure 1) published the results of an extensive study regarding the efficiency of steam heat engines. A later review of Carnot’s findings by Rudolf Clausius introduced a new thermodynamic property that relates the spontaneous heat flow accompanying a process to the temperature at which the process takes place. … Continue reading What is Entropy?
  • Dispersal of Matter and Energy
    Dispersal of Matter and Energy (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Extending the discussion of thermodynamic concepts toward the objective of predicting spontaneity, consider now an isolated system consisting of two flasks connected with a closed valve. Initially, there is an ideal gas in one flask and the other flask is empty (P = 0). (Figure 1). When the valve is opened, the gas spontaneously … Continue reading Dispersal of Matter and Energy
  • Wastewater Treatment and the Role of Precipitation
    Wastewater Treatment and the Role of Precipitation (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Solubility equilibria are useful tools in the treatment of wastewater carried out in facilities that may treat the municipal water in your city or town (Figure 1). Specifically, selective precipitation is used to remove contaminants from wastewater before it is released back into natural bodies of water. For example, phosphate ions (PO43−) … Continue reading Wastewater Treatment and the Role of Precipitation
  • Medical Imaging and the Use of Barium Sulfate
    Medical Imaging and the Use of Barium Sulfate (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Various types of medical imaging techniques are used to aid diagnoses of illnesses in a noninvasive manner. One such technique utilizes the ingestion of a barium compound before taking an X-ray image. A suspension of barium sulfate, a chalky powder, is ingested by the patient. Since the Ksp of barium sulfate is … Continue reading Medical Imaging and the Use of Barium Sulfate
  • Salts with Basic Ions
    Salts with Basic Ions (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Consider dissolving sodium acetate in water: The sodium ion does not undergo appreciable acid or base ionization and has no effect on the solution pH. This may seem obvious from the ion’s formula, which indicates no hydrogen or oxygen atoms, but some dissolved metal ions function as weak acids, as addressed later in this … Continue reading Salts with Basic Ions
  • Research Highlights: New Prehistoric Human Discovered in Israel and Could Be The “Missing Link” in Human Evolution
    New Prehistoric Human Discovered in Israel and Could Be The “Missing Link” in Human Evolution June 25, 2021 Researchers discovered fossilized skull remains which belong to a previously unknown hominin from the archaic period. Nesher Ramla Homo was found at a site in Israel. The skull has both Neanderthal and archaic human features. The newly discovered skull in the Eastern Mediterranean … Continue reading Research Highlights: New Prehistoric Human Discovered in Israel and Could Be The “Missing Link” in Human Evolution
  • Salts with Acidic Ions
    Salts with Acidic Ions (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Salts are ionic compounds composed of cations and anions, either of which may be capable of undergoing an acid or base ionization reaction with water. Aqueous salt solutions, therefore, may be acidic, basic, or neutral, depending on the relative acid-base strengths of the salt’s constituent ions. For example, dissolving ammonium chloride in water results … Continue reading Salts with Acidic Ions
  • Ternary Acids and Bases
    Ternary Acids and Bases (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Ternary compounds composed of hydrogen, oxygen, and some third element (“E”) may be structured as depicted in the image below. In these compounds, the central E atom is bonded to one or more O atoms, and at least one of the O atoms is also bonded to an H atom, corresponding to the general … Continue reading Ternary Acids and Bases

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