Latest Posts from Chromoscience
- Boron and Silicon Oxides and Derivativesby ChromoscienceBoron and Silicon Oxides and Derivatives (Openstax Chemistry 2e) Boron burns at 700 °C in oxygen, forming boric oxide, B2O3. Boric oxide is necessary for the production of heat-resistant borosilicate glass, like that shown in Figure 1 and certain optical glasses. Boric oxide dissolves in hot water to form boric acid, B(OH)3: The boron atom in B(OH)3 is sp2 hybridized and is located at the center … Continue reading Boron and Silicon Oxides and Derivatives
- Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metalsby ChromoscienceGroup 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals (Openstax Chemistry 2e) The alkaline earth metals (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium) constitute group 2 of the periodic table. The name alkaline metal comes from the fact that the oxides of the heavier members of the group react with water to form alkaline solutions. The nuclear charge increases when going from group 1 to group … Continue reading Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals
- Periodicity in Chemistryby ChromosciencePeriodicity in Chemistry (Openstax Chemistry 2e) It is possible to divide elements into groups according to their electron configurations. The representative elements are elements where the s and p orbitals are filling. The transition elements are elements where the d orbitals (groups 3–11 on the periodic table) are filling, and the inner transition metals are the elements where the f orbitals are filling. The d orbitals fill with the elements in group 11; … Continue reading Periodicity in Chemistry
- Uses of Lanthanides in Devicesby ChromoscienceUses of Lanthanides in Devices (Openstax Chemistry 2e) Lanthanides (elements 57–71) are fairly abundant in the earth’s crust, despite their historic characterization as rare earth elements. Thulium, the rarest naturally occurring lanthanoid, is more common in the earth’s crust than silver (4.5 × 10−5% versus 0.79 × 10−5% by mass). There are 17 rare earth elements, consisting of the 15 lanthanoids plus scandium and yttrium. They … Continue reading Uses of Lanthanides in Devices
- Nanotubes and Grapheneby ChromoscienceNanotubes and Graphene (Openstax Chemistry 2e) Graphene and carbon nanotubes are two recently discovered allotropes of carbon. Both of the forms bear some relationship to graphite. Graphene is a single layer of graphite (one atom thick), as illustrated in Figure 1, whereas carbon nanotubes roll the layer into a small tube, as illustrated in Figure 1. Graphene is a very strong, lightweight, and … Continue reading Nanotubes and Graphene
- Nitrogen Fixationby ChromoscienceNitrogen Fixation (Openstax Chemistry 2e) All living organisms require nitrogen compounds for survival. Unfortunately, most of these organisms cannot absorb nitrogen from its most abundant source—the atmosphere. Atmospheric nitrogen consists of N2 molecules, which are very unreactive due to the strong nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond. However, a few organisms can overcome this problem through a process known as nitrogen fixation, illustrated in Figure 1. … Continue reading Nitrogen Fixation
- Preparation of Hydrogenby ChromosciencePreparation of Hydrogen (Openstax Chemistry 2e) Elemental hydrogen must be prepared from compounds by breaking chemical bonds. The most common methods of preparing hydrogen follow. From Steam and Carbon or Hydrocarbons Water is the cheapest and most abundant source of hydrogen. Passing steam over coke (an impure form of elemental carbon) at 1000 °C produces a mixture of carbon monoxide and … Continue reading Preparation of Hydrogen
- Research Highlights: Mosquito and Malaria Parasite Are In A Mutualistic Relationshipby StaffMosquito and Malaria Parasite Are In A Mutualistic Relationship November 20, 2021 Anopheles is a genus of mosquito known to transmit the parasite Plasmodium that causes the disease malaria. Malaria is one of the most harmful diseases in humans and can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, and even death in severe cases. Malaria is transmitted when a mosquito becomes infected after … Continue reading Research Highlights: Mosquito and Malaria Parasite Are In A Mutualistic Relationship
- What is Phosphorus?by ChromoscienceWhat is Phosphorus? (Openstax Chemistry 2e) The name phosphorus comes from the Greek words meaning light bringing. When phosphorus was first isolated, scientists noted that it glowed in the dark and burned when exposed to air. Phosphorus is the only member of its group that does not occur in the uncombined state in nature; it exists in many allotropic forms. We will consider two of … Continue reading What is Phosphorus?
- What is Emotion?by ChromoscienceWhat is Emotion? (OpenStax Psychology 2e) As we move through our daily lives, we experience a variety of emotions. An emotion is a subjective state of being that we often describe as our feelings. Emotions result from the combination of subjective experience, expression, cognitive appraisal, and physiological responses (Levenson, Carstensen, Friesen, & Ekman, 1991). The exact order in which the components occur is … Continue reading What is Emotion?
- What is Sulfur?by ChromoscienceWhat is Sulfur? (Openstax Chemistry 2e) The allotropy of sulfur is far greater and more complex than that of any other element. Sulfur is the brimstone referred to in the Bible and other places, and references to sulfur occur throughout recorded history—right up to the relatively recent discovery that it is a component of the atmospheres of Venus and of Io, … Continue reading What is Sulfur?
- The Electrolysis of Molten Sodium Chlorideby ChromoscienceThe Electrolysis of Molten Sodium Chloride (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Metallic sodium, Na, and chlorine gas, Cl2, are used in numerous applications, and their industrial production relies on the large-scale electrolysis of molten sodium chloride, NaCl(l). The industrial process typically uses a Downs cell similar to the simplified illustration shown in Figure 1. The reactions associated with this process are: The cell potential for the … Continue reading The Electrolysis of Molten Sodium Chloride
- Research Highlights: Pathogenic Fungus On Infected Dead Female Flies Fools Male Flies To Mateby StaffPathogenic Fungus On Infected Dead Female Flies Fools Male Flies To Mate November 5, 2021 The recognition species concept is an idea that a species is characterized by a unique fertilization system that restricts gene-flow with other species. When males and females meet, mating competition and mating preferences may lead to low-quality decisions during mating. Certain flowers exploit the willingness of … Continue reading Research Highlights: Pathogenic Fungus On Infected Dead Female Flies Fools Male Flies To Mate
- Second Law of Thermodynamicsby ChromoscienceThermodynamics (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) In the quest to identify a property that may reliably predict the spontaneity of a process, a promising candidate has been identified: entropy. Processes that involve an increase in entropy of the system (ΔS > 0) are very often spontaneous; however, examples to the contrary are plentiful. By expanding consideration of entropy changes to include the surroundings, we may reach a … Continue reading Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Electroplatingby ChromoscienceElectroplating (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) An important use for electrolytic cells is in electroplating. Electroplating results in a thin coating of one metal on top of a conducting surface. Reasons for electroplating include making the object more corrosion resistant, strengthening the surface, producing a more attractive finish, or for purifying metal. The metals commonly used in electroplating include cadmium, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, … Continue reading Electroplating
- Statue of Liberty: Changing Colorsby ChromoscienceStatue of Liberty: Changing Colors (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The Statue of Liberty is a landmark every American recognizes. The Statue of Liberty is easily identified by its height, stance, and unique blue-green color (Figure 1). When this statue was first delivered from France, its appearance was not green. It was brown, the color of its copper “skin.” So how did the … Continue reading Statue of Liberty: Changing Colors
- The Electrolysis of Waterby ChromoscienceThe Electrolysis of Water (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Water may be electrolytically decomposed in a cell similar to the one illustrated in Figure 1. To improve electrical conductivity without introducing a different redox species, the hydrogen ion concentration of the water is typically increased by addition of a strong acid. The redox processes associated with this cell are Related Research Research Article: Synergistic … Continue reading The Electrolysis of Water
- Research Highlights: Women Who Breastfed May Have Better Mental Health At The Age of 50by StaffWomen Who Breastfed May Have Better Mental Health At The Age of 50 October 23, 2021 Breastfeeding may give long-term health benefits to women in addition to the known benefits on the child. Breastfeeding can also influence mental health. However, breastfeeding has been diminishing after the industrial era; thus, it is important to understand the effects of breastfeeding on our lifespan. … Continue reading Research Highlights: Women Who Breastfed May Have Better Mental Health At The Age of 50
- Research Highlights: Gut Bacteria Promote Therapy Resistant Prostate Cancerby StaffGut Bacteria Promote Therapy Resistant Prostate Cancer October 11, 2021 Androgens such as testosterone are important for male sexual and reproductive function. Androgens play a role in the growth of prostate cancer cells. Decreasing androgens by means of castration or hormone suppression is the current treatment for prostate cancer. Castration refers to the process of removing the testicles in males. The … Continue reading Research Highlights: Gut Bacteria Promote Therapy Resistant Prostate Cancer
- Research Highlights: Plant’s Glowing Properties Produce Stunning Images of Microscopic Structuresby StaffPlant’s Glowing Properties Produce Stunning Images of Microscopic Structures October 3, 2021 Microscopic staining has been used to enhance the visualization of samples at the microscopic level. Before viewing samples under a microscope, cells and tissues must be stained which requires long preparation processes. Another way to improve cellular visualization is by utilizing fluorescence tagging. A fluorescence tag is a molecule … Continue reading Research Highlights: Plant’s Glowing Properties Produce Stunning Images of Microscopic Structures
- Image: A new species of marsupial frog has been discovered in Peruvian Amazon. It belongs to the genus of tailless frogs. The new species have thick granular skin on the back, a turquoise iris and a spotless belly.by StaffA new species of marsupial frog has been discovered in Peruvian Amazon. It belongs to the genus of tailless frogs. The new species have thick granular skin on the back, a turquoise iris and a spotless belly. Source: https://phys.org/news/2021-04-species-frog-unearthed-peruvian-amazon.html