Extraction of DNA or RNA must be done first before we can study and manipulate nucleic acids. There are many ways to extract different types of DNA. Most extraction techniques involve breaking the cell and destroying all unwanted macromolecules. Cells can be broken using a detergent solution called lysis buffer which can disrupt nuclear and cell membranes. Unwanted proteins are broken down using an enzyme called proteases and unwanted RNA are broken down using ribonucleases. The test tube used in performing the process is centrifuged to separate the DNA from the unwanted cell debris. Alcohol is then added to precipitate the DNA and forms into a visible white gelatinous mass. DNA samples can be stored in ultra-freezers (–80°C ) for many years.
OpenStax Human Physiology. DNA and RNA Extraction. Accessed November 16, 2019. https://openstax.org/