Common Terms and Definition in Microbiology Laboratory


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– a spray of live microbes ejected from sputtering

– a microscope which the general background or field of view is bright while dense specimens appear darker objects; used for stained materials

– thick layer of substance found on the surface of some bacteria that inhibits phagocytosis by white blood cells

– involves the process of negative staining the slide and staining the cytoplasm of the bacteria making the capsule only the colorless structure which appears as a light halo around the bacteria

– the primary stain used in acid fast staining

– detects species of bacteria that survive on citrate as its carbon source

 – a bacterial enzyme which brings about the coagulation of blood or plasma and is produced by disease-causing forms of staphylococcus

 – visible mass of microorganisms originating from a single mother cell

– microscope with two magnifying lens

 – logical judgment or analysis we make from our results

 – lens system in microscope whose function is to focus the light onto the specimen

 – joining of two bacteria or unicellular organism for the transfer of genetic material by direct cell to cell contact or by bridge like connection called sex pilus

 – the presence of undesirable microorganism that accidentally gets into a culture

 – the group in the experiment that does not receive treatment; used to compare how the experimental group do

 – the factors in the experiment that we control and keep the same

 – primary stain used in Gram staining

 – creates the effect of a negative image; field of view is dark while cells and other objects are lit up; used to observe live, motile cells

 – removes the primary stain from the gram-negative bacteria making it colorless

 – the variable being tested, observed, and measured

 – a medium with diagnostic test built into it that changes color with different species of microbes

 – procedure that will dye different kinds of bacteria in contrasting color

 – a type of experiment which neither the subjects nor the experimenters know which subjects are in the test and control groups

 – a microscope that uses beam of electron rather than beam of light to observe a specimen

 – when a disease prevalence is fairly stable in a location

 – occurs when a disease is spreading rapidly in a particular population

 – the decolorizer used in Gram staining

 – the ability of a substance to absorbed UV light and emit back the light as a visible color

 – mordant used in Gram staining

 – is a hormone that prevents menstruation from occuring during pregnancy

 – a bacterial cell with conjugative plasmid integrated into its chromosomal DNA

 – means more susceptible to infections

 – also called the experimental variable; anything that can be changed or manipulated

 – an enzyme that dissolves the chemical bond between the NAG and NAM within the backbone of the peptidoglycan molecule in gram-positive bacteria

 – primary stain in spore staining

 – counterstain used in acid fast staining

 – warm and moist areas where the number of microorganisms is usually the highest

 – lowest concentration of drug which prevent visible growth of bacteria

 – a substance which causes the primary stain to become more tightly bound to the cell

 – a stain which involves staining the background of the slide

 – infectious disease acquired during hospitalization

 – a general purpose medium that will support growth of many common bacteria

 – also called eyepiece; the top lenses of the microscope which you look through

 – also called the microscopic ruler inscribed into the eyepieces on the microscope

 – an antibody which binds to foreign microbes making them susceptible to phagocytosis

 – occurs when a disease is spreading globally or over one continent

 – means when one lens is focused, the others are also focused

 – a microscope that increases the contrast between cells or portions of cells that vary only slightly in density; used to observe unstained bacterial cells

 – is made by inoculating melted agar with bacteria and then pouring the agar into an empty petri plate to harden, thus the microbes are distributed evenly throughout the agar; creates an evenly distributed lawn of bacteria to be use for phage typing

 – extension of cytoplasm use for movement; also called false feet

– a medium growing with only one intended species of microorganism

 – the bending of light

 – microorganisms that live naturally and permanently in various areas of the human body

 – defined as the closest distance two objects can be where you can still see them as separate objects

 – refers to the actual data that you collect such as the number of colonies

– is a plasmid in bacteria that contains the antibiotic resistant gene

 – medium that are slightly acidic and have extra glucose; also used for fungal growth; used to check fungal spores in the air

 – the counter-stain used in Gram staining

 – a microscope that reflects beam of electrons off the exterior of the specimen; produces 3D view of specimen’s surface

 – a medium that only allows certain species of microbes to grow and inhibits others

 – microscope with single magnifying lens

 – defined as a procedure that stains all cells with the same color

 – measures the amount of acid produced by normal flora in a medium containing sugar

 – occurs when a disease is infrequent and in scattered location

 – the platform below the objective lenses of a microscope used to hold the slide

 – term typically referring to a slide that comes with a known scale on its surface

 – a term which means free of bacteria or living things

 – is performed by spreading an inoculum of bacteria across the surface of an agar plate in such a way as to produce isolated colonies

 – oral bacteria involve with the development dental caries or tooth decay

 – second infection with microbial agent that is resistant to the treatment used against the first infection

 – medium made from scratch with every single ingredient defined and listed separately

 – minimum temperature required to kill a bacteria with a given amount of time

 – time required to kill a bacteria at a particular temperature

 – is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector

 – is a process of horizontal gene transfer by which some bacteria take up foreign genetic material from the environment

 – microbes that are temporary and can be removed by handwashing

 – is a medium used to transport microbes from one place to another and limits the overgrowth of microbes

Sources:

Alderson, Gary D. Microbiology Experiments and Lab Techniques 14th Edition. Palomar College. Fountainhead Press. Accessed November 26, 2019.


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