Apoptosis During Development (Campbell Biology)
A built-in cell suicide mechanism is essential to development and maintenance in all animals. The similarities between apoptosis genes in nematodes and those in mammals, as well as the observation that apoptosis occurs in multi-cellular fungi and even in single-celled yeasts, indicate that the basic mechanism evolved early in the evolution of eukaryotes. In vertebrates, apoptosis is essential for normal development of the nervous system, for normal operation of the immune system, and for normal morphogenesis of hands and feet in humans and paws in other mammals. The level of apoptosis between the developing digits is lower in the webbed feet of ducks and other water birds than in the non-webbed feet of land birds, such as chickens. In the case of humans, the failure of appropriate apoptosis can result in webbed fingers and toes.– What is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape?
Significant evidence points to the involvement of apoptosis in certain degenerative diseases of the nervous system, such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s disease, an accumulation of aggregated proteins in neuronal cells activates an enzyme that triggers apoptosis, resulting in the loss of brain function seen in these patients. Furthermore, cancer can result from a failure of cell suicide; some cases of human melanoma, for example, have been linked to faulty forms of the human version of the C. elegans Ced-4 protein. It is not surprising, therefore, that the signaling pathways feeding into apoptosis are quite elaborate. After all, the life-or-death question is the most fundamental one imaginable for a cell.– What is the result of a continuous process based on degenerative cell changes, affecting tissues or organs, which will increasingly deteriorate over time?
Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology. Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. https://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education/series/Campbell-Biology-Series/2244849.html
Date Published: May 30, 2008 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Lorenzo Galluzzi, Catherine Brenner, Eugenia Morselli, Zahia Touat, Guido Kroemer, B. Brett Finlay. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000018 Abstract: Throughout the process of pathogen–host co-evolution, viruses have developed a battery of distinct strategies to overcome biochemical and immunological defenses of the host. Thus, viruses have acquired the capacity … Continue reading
Date Published: October 14, 2010 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Kenneth L. Ho, Heather A. Harrington, Nathan D. Price Abstract: Apoptosis is a highly regulated cell death mechanism involved in many physiological processes. A key component of extrinsically activated apoptosis is the death receptor Fas which, on binding to its cognate ligand FasL, oligomerize … Continue reading
Date Published: December 11, 2009 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Rebekka Schlatter, Kathrin Schmich, Ima Avalos Vizcarra, Peter Scheurich, Thomas Sauter, Christoph Borner, Michael Ederer, Irmgard Merfort, Oliver Sawodny, Denis Thieffry Abstract: Apoptosis is regulated by several signaling pathways which are extensively linked by crosstalks. Boolean or logical modeling has become a promising approach … Continue reading
Date Published: April 8, 2008 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Julia Hatzold, Barbara Conradt, Julie Ahringer Abstract: Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be … Continue reading