Biology Discussion: Umami Taste (Campbell Biology)
There are five basic tastes—sour, salty, sweet, bitter, and “umami.” Salt is detected when the concentration of salt outside of a taste bud cell is higher than that inside of it, and ion channels allow the passive leakage of Na+ into the cell. The resulting change in membrane potential sends the “salty” signal to the brain. Umami is a savory taste generated by glutamate (glutamic acid, found in monosodium glutamate, or MSG), which is used as a flavor enhancer in foods such as taco-flavored tortilla chips. The glutamate receptor is a GPCR, which, when bound, initiates a signaling pathway that ends with a cellular response, perceived by you as “taste.” If you eat a regular potato chip and then rinse your mouth, you will no longer taste salt. But if you eat a flavored tortilla chip and then rinse, the taste persists. Try it! Propose a possible explanation for this difference.– People taste umami through taste receptors that typically respond to what?
– What constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses?
Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology. Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. https://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education/series/Campbell-Biology-Series/2244849.html
Date Published: March 1, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Matthew Kochem, Paul A. S. Breslin, Hiroaki Matsunami. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172534 Abstract: In humans, umami taste can increase the palatability of foods rich in the amino acids glutamate and aspartate and the 5’-ribonucleotides IMP and GMP. Umami taste is transduced, in part, by T1R1-T1R3, a heteromeric … Continue reading
Date Published: April 18, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Shizuko Satoh-Kuriwada, Misako Kawai, Masahiro Iikubo, Yuki Sekine-Hayakawa, Noriaki Shoji, Hisayuki Uneyama, Takashi Sasano, François Blachier. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095177 Abstract: There is a close relationship between perception of umami, which has become recognized as the fifth taste, and the human physical condition. We have developed a … Continue reading
Research Article: Genetic and Molecular Basis of Individual Differences in Human Umami Taste Perception
Date Published: August 21, 2009 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Noriatsu Shigemura, Shinya Shirosaki, Keisuke Sanematsu, Ryusuke Yoshida, Yuzo Ninomiya, Hiroaki Matsunami. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006717 Abstract: Umami taste (corresponds to savory in English) is elicited by L-glutamate, typically as its Na salt (monosodium glutamate: MSG), and is one of five basic taste qualities that plays a key … Continue reading
Research Article: Modulation of Sweet Taste by Umami Compounds via Sweet Taste Receptor Subunit hT1R2
Date Published: April 8, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Jaewon Shim, Hee Jin Son, Yiseul Kim, Ki Hwa Kim, Jung Tae Kim, Hana Moon, Min Jung Kim, Takumi Misaka, Mee-Ra Rhyu, Keiko Abe. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124030 Abstract: Although the five basic taste qualities—sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami—can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, … Continue reading