What is Epigenetic Inheritance? (Campbell Biology)
Chromatin modifications do not change the DNA sequence, yet they still may be passed along to future generations of cells. Inheritance of traits transmitted by mechanisms not involving the nucleotide sequence itself is called epigenetic inheritance. Whereas mutations in the DNA are permanent changes, modifications to the chromatin can be reversed. For example, DNA methylation patterns are largely erased and reestablished during gamete formation.
Researchers are amassing more and more evidence for the importance of epigenetic information in the regulation of gene expression. Epigenetic variations might help explain why one identical twin acquires a genetically based disease, such as schizophrenia, but the other does not, despite their identical genomes. Alterations in normal patterns of DNA methylation are seen in some cancers, where they are associated with inappropriate gene expression. Evidently, enzymes that modify chromatin structure are integral parts of the eukaryotic cell’s machinery for regulating transcription.
Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology. Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. https://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education/series/Campbell-Biology-Series/2244849.html
Date Published: July 14, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Robert E. Furrow, Lilach Hadany. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101559 Abstract: There has been minimal theoretical exploration of the role of epigenetic variation in the response to natural selection. Using a population genetic model, I derive formulae that characterize the response of epigenetic variation to selection over multiple … Continue reading
Research Article: Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Ovarian Disease
Date Published: May 3, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Eric Nilsson, Ginger Larsen, Mohan Manikkam, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna, Marina I. Savenkova, Michael K. Skinner, Toshi Shioda. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036129 Abstract: The actions of environmental toxicants and relevant mixtures in promoting the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of ovarian disease was investigated with the use of a fungicide, a pesticide … Continue reading
Date Published: February 14, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Christina Bauch, Jelle J. Boonekamp, Peter Korsten, Ellis Mulder, Simon Verhulst, Gregory P. Copenhaver Abstract: Telomere length (TL) predicts health and survival across taxa. Variation in TL between individuals is thought to be largely of genetic origin, but telomere inheritance is unusual, because zygotes … Continue reading
Research Article: Replication stress affects the fidelity of nucleosome-mediated epigenetic inheritance
Date Published: July 27, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Wenzhu Li, Jia Yi, Pamela Agbu, Zheng Zhou, Richard L. Kelley, Scott Kallgren, Songtao Jia, Xiangwei He, Jonathan Houseley Abstract: The fidelity of epigenetic inheritance or, the precision by which epigenetic information is passed along, is an essential parameter for measuring the effectiveness of … Continue reading
Research Article: PcG Complexes Set the Stage for Epigenetic Inheritance of Gene Silencing in Early S Phase before Replication
Date Published: November 3, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Chiara Lanzuolo, Federica Lo Sardo, Adamo Diamantini, Valerio Orlando, Asifa Akhtar Abstract: Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are part of a conserved cell memory system that conveys epigenetic inheritance of silenced transcriptional states through cell division. Despite the considerable amount of information about PcG mechanisms … Continue reading