Gene Transfer from One Species to Another Species (Campbell Biology)
The genetic code is nearly universal, shared by organisms from the simplest bacteria to the most complex plants and animals. The mRNA codon CCG, for instance, is translated as the amino acid proline in all organisms whose genetic code has been examined. In laboratory experiments, genes can be transcribed and translated after being transplanted from one species to another, sometimes with quite striking results. Bacteria can be programmed by the insertion of human genes to synthesize certain human proteins for medical use, such as insulin. Such applications have produced many exciting developments in the area of biotechnology.
Despite a small number of exceptions, the evolutionary significance of the code’s near universality is clear. A language shared by all living things must have been operating very early in the history of life—early enough to be present in the common ancestor of all present-day organisms. A shared genetic vocabulary is a reminder of the kinship of all life.
Because diverse forms of life share a common genetic code due to their shared ancestry, one species can be programmed to produce proteins characteristic of a second species by introducing DNA from the second species into the first.
Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology. Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. https://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education/series/Campbell-Biology-Series/2244849.html
Date Published: October 6, 2010 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Kateřina Jiroutová, Luděk Kořený, Chris Bowler, Miroslav Oborník, Simon Joly. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013234 Abstract: The endosymbiotic birth of organelles is accompanied by massive transfer of endosymbiont genes to the eukaryotic host nucleus. In the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana the Psb28 protein is encoded in the plastid genome … Continue reading
Date Published: May 28, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Matt Ravenhall, Nives Škunca, Florent Lassalle, Christophe Dessimoz, Shoshana Wodak Abstract: Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments … Continue reading
Date Published: March 22, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): David Wheeler, Amanda J. Redding, John H. Werren, Kostas Bourtzis. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059262 Abstract: Bacteria to eukaryote lateral gene transfers (LGT) are an important potential source of material for the evolution of novel genetic traits. The explosion in the number of newly sequenced genomes provides opportunities to … Continue reading
Date Published: October 29, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Emile Gluck-Thaler, Jason C. Slot, Deborah A. Hogan. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005156 Abstract: Partial Text Comparative genomic studies of microorganisms have disrupted the paradigm of vertical inheritance with modification. First in bacteria, and more recently in microscopic and even multicellular eukaryotes, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been … Continue reading