Osteogenesis Imperfecta

By ShakataGaNai - Own work, CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1284831 OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease in which bones do not form properly and therefore are fragile and break easily. It is also called brittle bone disease. The disease is present from birth and affects a person throughout life. The genetic … Continue reading Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Endochondral Ossification

Endochondral ossification follows five steps. (a) Mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrocytes. (b) The cartilage model of the future bony skeleton and the perichondrium form. (c) Capillaries penetrate cartilage. Perichondrium transforms into periosteum. Periosteal collar develops. Primary ossification center develops. (d) Cartilage and chondrocytes continue to grow at ends of the bone. (e) Secondary ossification centers … Continue reading Endochondral Ossification

Intramembranous Ossification

Intramembranous ossification follows four steps. (a) Mesenchymal cells group into clusters, and ossification centers form. (b) Secreted osteoid traps osteoblasts, which then become osteocytes. (c) Trabecular matrix and periosteum form. (d) Compact bone develops superficial to the trabecular bone, and crowded blood vessels condense into red marrow. Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and … Continue reading Intramembranous Ossification

Blood and Nerve Supply in Bones

Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology The spongy bone and medullary cavity receive nourishment from arteries that pass through the compact bone. The arteries enter through the nutrient foramen (plural = foramina), small openings in the diaphysis. The osteocytes in spongy bone are nourished by blood vessels of the periosteum that penetrate … Continue reading Blood and Nerve Supply in Bones

Bone Cells and Tissue

Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Bone contains a relatively small number of cells entrenched in a matrix of collagen fibers that provide a surface for inorganic salt crystals to adhere. These salt crystals form when calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate combine to create hydroxyapatite, which incorporates other inorganic salts like magnesium … Continue reading Bone Cells and Tissue