OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology
The muscles of the leg are divided by deep fascia into compartments, although the leg has three: anterior, lateral, and posterior.
The muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg: the tibialis anterior, a long and thick muscle on the lateral surface of the tibia, the extensor hallucis longus, deep under it, and the extensor digitorum longus, lateral to it, all contribute to raising the front of the foot when they contract. The fibularis tertius, a small muscle that originates on the anterior surface of the fibula, is associated with the extensor digitorum longus and sometimes fused to it, but is not present in all people. Thick bands of connective tissue called the superior extensor retinaculum (transverse ligament of the ankle) and the inferior extensor retinaculum, hold the tendons of these muscles in place during dorsiflexion.
The lateral compartment of the leg includes two muscles: the fibularis longus (peroneus longus) and the fibularis brevis (peroneus brevis). The superficial muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg all insert onto the calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon), a strong tendon that inserts into the calcaneal bone of the ankle. The muscles in this compartment are large and strong and keep humans upright. The most superficial and visible muscle of the calf is the gastrocnemius. Deep to the gastrocnemius is the wide, flat soleus. The plantaris runs obliquely between the two; some people may have two of these muscles, whereas no plantaris is observed in about seven percent of other cadaver dissections. The plantaris tendon is a desirable substitute for the fascia lata in hernia repair, tendon transplants, and repair of ligaments. There are four deep muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg as well: the popliteus, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, and tibialis posterior.
The foot also has intrinsic muscles, which originate and insert within it (similar to the intrinsic muscles of the hand). These muscles primarily provide support for the foot and its arch, and contribute to movements of the toes. The principal support for the longitudinal arch of the foot is a deep fascia called plantar aponeurosis, which runs from the calcaneus bone to the toes (inflammation of this tissue is the cause of “plantar fasciitis,” which can affect runners. The intrinsic muscles of the foot consist of two groups. The dorsal group includes only one muscle, the extensor digitorum brevis. The second group is the plantar group, which consists of four layers, starting with the most superficial.
Betts, J. G., Young, K. A., Wise, J. A., Johnson, E., Poe, B., Kruse, D. H., … DeSaix, P. (n.d.). Anatomy and Physiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/anatomy-and-physiology