OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology
The failures of sensory perception can be unusual and debilitating. A particular sensory deficit that inhibits an important social function of humans is prosopagnosia, or face blindness. The word comes from the Greek words prosopa, that means “faces,” and agnosia, that means “not knowing.” Some people may feel that they cannot recognize people easily by their faces. However, a person with prosopagnosia cannot recognize the most recognizable people in their respective cultures. They would not recognize the face of a celebrity, an important historical figure, or even a family member like their mother. They may not even recognize their own face.
Prosopagnosia can be caused by trauma to the brain, or it can be present from birth. The exact cause of proposagnosia and the reason that it happens to some people is unclear. A study of the brains of people born with the deficit found that a specific region of the brain, the anterior fusiform gyrus of the temporal lobe, is often underdeveloped. This region of the brain is concerned with the recognition of visual stimuli and its possible association with memories. Though the evidence is not yet definitive, this region is likely to be where facial recognition occurs.
Though this can be a devastating condition, people who suffer from it can get by—often by using other cues to recognize the people they see. Often, the sound of a person’s voice, or the presence of unique cues such as distinct facial features (a mole, for example) or hair color can help the sufferer recognize a familiar person. In the video on prosopagnosia provided in this section, a woman is shown having trouble recognizing celebrities, family members, and herself. In some situations, she can use other cues to help her recognize faces.
Betts, J. G., Young, K. A., Wise, J. A., Johnson, E., Poe, B., Kruse, D. H., … DeSaix, P. (n.d.). Anatomy and Physiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/anatomy-and-physiology