Structures of DNA and RNA Molecules

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The structures of DNA and tRNA molecules. (a) The DNA molecule is usually a double helix, with the sugar-phosphate backbones of the anti-parallel polynucleotide strands (symbolized here by blue ribbons) on the outside of the helix. Hydrogen bonds between pairs of nitrogenous bases hold the two strands together. As illustrated here with symbolic shapes for the bases, adenine (A) can pair only with thymine (T), and guanine (G) can pair only with cytosine (C). Each DNA strand in this figure is the structural equivalent of the polynucleotide diagrammed in Figure 5.23a. (b) A tRNA molecule has a roughly L-shaped structure due to complementary base pairing of anti-parallel stretches of RNA. In RNA, A pairs with U.

Source: Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology (p. 86). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition.

Structures of DNA and RNA Molecules (Campbell Biology)

DNA molecules have two polynucleotides, or “strands,” that wind around an imaginary axis, forming a double helix. The two sugar-phosphate backbones run in opposite 5′ S 3′ directions from each other; this arrangement is referred to as anti-parallel, somewhat like a divided highway. The sugar-phosphate backbones are on the outside of the helix, and the nitrogenous bases are paired in the interior of the helix. The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between the paired bases. Most DNA molecules are very long, with thousands or even millions of base pairs. The one long DNA double helix in a eukaryotic chromosome includes many genes, each one a particular segment of the molecule.

In base pairing, only certain bases in the double helix are compatible with each other. Adenine (A) in one strand always pairs with thymine (T) in the other, and guanine (G) always pairs with cytosine (C). Reading the sequence of bases along one strand of the double helix would tell us the sequence of bases along the other strand. If a stretch of one strand has the base sequence 5′-AGGTCCG-3′, then the base-pairing rules tell us that the same stretch of the other strand must have helix are complementary, each the predictable counterpart of the other. It is this feature of DNA that makes it possible to generate two identical copies of each DNA molecule in a cell that is preparing to divide. When the cell divides, the copies are distributed to the daughter cells, making them genetically identical to the parent cell. Thus, the structure of DNA accounts for its function of transmitting genetic information whenever a cell reproduces.

RNA molecules, by contrast, exist as single strands. Complementary base pairing can occur, however, between regions of two RNA molecules or even between two stretches of nucleotides in the same RNA molecule. In fact, base pairing within an RNA molecule allows it to take on the particular three-dimensional shape necessary for its function. Consider, for example, the type of RNA called transfer RNA (tRNA), which brings amino acids to the ribosome during the synthesis of a polypeptide. A tRNA molecule is about 80 nucleotides in length. Its functional shape results from base pairing between nucleotides where complementary stretches of the molecule can run anti-parallel to each other.

Note that in RNA, adenine (A) pairs with uracil (U); thymine (T) is not present in RNA. Another difference between RNA and DNA is that DNA almost always exists as a double helix, whereas RNA molecules are more variable in shape. RNAs are versatile molecules, and many biologists believe RNA may have preceded DNA as the carrier of genetic information in early forms of life.


Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology. Pearson Education. Kindle Edition.

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