Exocytosis (Campbell Biology)
The cell secretes certain molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane; this process is called exocytosis. A transport vesicle that has budded from the Golgi apparatus moves along microtubules of the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. When the vesicle membrane and plasma membrane come into contact, specific proteins rearrange the lipid molecules of the two bilayers so that the two membranes fuse. The contents of the vesicle spill out of the cell, and the vesicle membrane becomes part of the plasma membrane.
Many secretory cells use exocytosis to export products. For example, cells in the pancreas that make insulin secrete it into the extracellular fluid by exocytosis. In another example, nerve cells use exocytosis to release neurotransmitters that signal other neurons or muscle cells. When plant cells are making cell walls, exocytosis delivers some of the necessary proteins and carbohydrates from Golgi vesicles to the outside of the cell.
Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology. Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. https://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education/series/Campbell-Biology-Series/2244849.html
Date Published: August 12, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Qiuyu Zhu, Munekazu Yamakuchi, Charles J. Lowenstein, Nanette H Bishopric. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118737 Abstract: Endothelial exocytosis regulates vascular thrombosis and inflammation. The trafficking and release of endothelial vesicles is mediated by SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment protein REceptors) molecules, but the exact identity of endothelial SNAREs has … Continue reading
Date Published: October 6, 2005 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Gerardo A. De Blas, Carlos M Roggero, Claudia N Tomes, Luis S Mayorga, Fred Hughson Abstract: The dynamics of SNARE assembly and disassembly during membrane recognition and fusion is a central issue in intracellular trafficking and regulated secretion. Exocytosis of sperm’s single vesicle—the acrosome—is … Continue reading
Date Published: October 18, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Wei Xiong, Tao Liu, Yeshi Wang, Xiaowei Chen, Lei Sun, Ning Guo, Hui Zheng, Lianghong Zheng, Martial Ruat, Weiping Han, Claire Xi Zhang, Zhuan Zhou, Steven Barnes. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024573 Abstract: Neurotransmitter release is elicited by an elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). The action potential triggers … Continue reading
Research Article: MARCKS Protein Is Phosphorylated and Regulates Calcium Mobilization during Human Acrosomal Exocytosis
Date Published: May 21, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Marcelo J. Rodriguez Peña, Jimena V. Castillo Bennett, Osvaldo M. Soler, Luis S. Mayorga, Marcela A. Michaut, Anna Maria Delprato. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064551 Abstract: Acrosomal exocytosis is a calcium-regulated exocytosis that can be triggered by PKC activators. The involvement of PKC in acrosomal exocytosis has not been … Continue reading
Date Published: September 29, 2009 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Caitlin Sedwick Abstract: None Partial Text: Eukaryotic cells use a process called endocytosis to take up materials from their environment and package them for use within the cell. The best-studied form of endocytosis—receptor-mediated endocytosis—has several stages. In the first step, the cell’s outer membrane … Continue reading
Research Article: Clathrin- and Dynamin-Independent Endocytosis of FGFR3 – Implications for Signaling
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Date Published: July 14, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Ellen Margrethe Haugsten, Malgorzata Zakrzewska, Andreas Brech, Sascha Pust, Sjur Olsnes, Kirsten Sandvig, Jørgen Wesche, James Keen. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021708 Abstract: Endocytosis of tyrosine kinase receptors can influence both the duration and the specificity of the signal emitted. We have investigated the mechanisms of internalization of fibroblast … Continue reading