Activation Energy and the Arrhenius Equation

OpenStax Chemistry 2e The minimum energy necessary to form a product during a collision between reactants is called the activation energy (Ea). How this energy compares to the kinetic energy provided by colliding reactant molecules is a primary factor affecting the rate of a chemical reaction. If the activation energy is much larger than the … Continue reading Activation Energy and the Arrhenius Equation

Collision Theory in Chemistry

OpenStax Chemistry 2e We should not be surprised that atoms, molecules, or ions must collide before they can react with each other. Atoms must be close together to form chemical bonds. This simple premise is the basis for a very powerful theory that explains many observations regarding chemical kinetics, including factors affecting reaction rates. Collision … Continue reading Collision Theory in Chemistry

Summary of Integrated Rate Laws of Chemical Reactions

OpenStax Chemistry 2e The rate laws far relate the rate and the concentrations of reactants. We can also determine a second form of each rate law that relates the concentrations of reactants and time . These are called integrated rate laws. We can use an integrated rate law to determine the amount of reactant or … Continue reading Summary of Integrated Rate Laws of Chemical Reactions

Factors Affecting Chemical Reaction Rates

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com OpenStax Chemistry 2e The rates at which reactants are consumed and products are formed during chemical reactions vary greatly. Five factors typically affecting the rates of chemical reactions will be explored in this section: the chemical nature of the reacting substances, the state of subdivision (one large lump versus many … Continue reading Factors Affecting Chemical Reaction Rates

Reaction Rates in Analysis: Test Strips for Urinalysis

OpenStax Chemistry 2e Physicians often use disposable test strips to measure the amounts of various substances in a patient’s urine. These test strips contain various chemical reagents , embedded in small pads at various locations along the strip, which undergo changes in color upon exposure to sufficient concentrations of specific substances. The usage instructions for … Continue reading Reaction Rates in Analysis: Test Strips for Urinalysis

Physics Introduction, Measurements, and Estimating

Photo by JESHOOTS.com on Pexels.com Physics, like other sciences, is a creative endeavor. It is not simply a collection of facts. Important theories are created with the idea of explaining observations . To be accepted, theories are tested by comparing their predictions with the results of actual experiments. Note that, in general, a theory cannot … Continue reading Physics Introduction, Measurements, and Estimating

Respiratory and Metabolic Compensation

Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Various compensatory mechanisms exist to maintain blood pH within a narrow range, including buffers, respiration, and renal mechanisms. Although compensatory mechanisms usually work very well, when one of these mechanisms is not working properly (like kidney failure or respiratory disease), they have their limits. If the … Continue reading Respiratory and Metabolic Compensation