Images: Elephant Seals at San Simeon, California

Wikipedia Elephant seals are marine mammals classified under the order Pinnipedia, which, in Latin, means feather- or fin-footed. Elephant seals are considered true seals, and fall under the family Phocidae. Phocids (true seals) are characterized by having no external ear and reduced limbs. The reduction of their limbs helps them be more streamlined and move easily in the … Continue reading Images: Elephant Seals at San Simeon, California

The Bicarbonate

Ball and stick model of bicarbonateSource: By Ben Mills and Jynto - Recolour of File:Nitric-acid-3D-balls-B.png., Public Domain, OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Bicarbonate is the second most abundant anion in the blood. Its principal function is to maintain your body’s acid-base balance by being part of buffer systems. Bicarbonate ions result from a chemical reaction … Continue reading The Bicarbonate

The Chloride

Sodium ChlorideSource: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Chloride is the predominant extracellular anion. Chloride is a major contributor to the osmotic pressure gradient between the ICF and ECF, and plays an important role in maintaining proper hydration. Chloride functions to balance cations in the ECF, maintaining the electrical neutrality of this fluid. The paths of … Continue reading The Chloride

The Potassium

Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Potassium is the major intracellular cation. It helps establish the resting membrane potential in neurons and muscle fibers after membrane depolarization and action potentials. In contrast to sodium, potassium has very little effect on osmotic pressure. The low levels of potassium in blood and CSF are due to the … Continue reading The Potassium

The Sodium

Body-centered cubic crystal structure for sodiumSource: By !Original: Daniel Mayer, DrBobVector: Stannered - Crystal stucture, CC BY-SA 3.0, OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular fluid. It is responsible for one-half of the osmotic pressure gradient that exists between the interior of cells and their surrounding environment. People eating … Continue reading The Sodium

The Roles of Electrolytes

Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology These six ions aid in nerve excitability, endocrine secretion, membrane permeability, buffering body fluids, and controlling the movement of fluids between compartments. These ions enter the body through the digestive tract. More than 90 percent of the calcium and phosphate that enters the body is incorporated … Continue reading The Roles of Electrolytes