Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone

Source: By Mikael Häggström - All used images are in public domain., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8458370 OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Renin is an enzyme that is produced by the granular cells of the afferent arteriole at the JGA. It enzymatically converts angiotensinogen (made by the liver, freely circulating) into angiotensin I. Its release is stimulated by … Continue reading Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone

Regulation of Renal Blood Flow

Source: https://www.scientificanimations.com/five-stages-disease-13-million-americans-dont-know/ OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology It is vital that the flow of blood through the kidney be at a suitable rate to allow for filtration. This rate determines how much solute is retained or discarded, how much water is retained or discarded, and ultimately, the osmolarity of blood and the blood pressure of the … Continue reading Regulation of Renal Blood Flow

Reabsorption and Secretion in the Loop of Henle

Countercurrent Multiplier System Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology The loop of Henle consists of two sections: thick and thin descending and thin and thick ascending sections. The loops of cortical nephrons do not extend into the renal medulla very far, if at all. Juxtamedullary nephrons have loops that extend variable distances, … Continue reading Reabsorption and Secretion in the Loop of Henle

Reabsorption and Secretion in the PCT

Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology The renal corpuscle filters the blood to create a filtrate that differs from blood mainly in the absence of cells and large proteins. From this point to the ends of the collecting ducts, the filtrate or forming urine is undergoing modification through secretion and reabsorption before … Continue reading Reabsorption and Secretion in the PCT

Net Filtration Pressure (NFP) Through the Kidney

The NFP is the sum of osmotic and hydrostatic pressures. Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology NFP determines filtration rates through the kidney. It is determined as follows: NFP = Glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure (GBHP) – [capsular hydrostatic pressure (CHP) + blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP)] = 10 mm Hg That is: … Continue reading Net Filtration Pressure (NFP) Through the Kidney

The Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology The volume of filtrate formed by both kidneys per minute is termed the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The heart pumps about 5 L blood per min under resting conditions. Approximately 20 percent or one liter enters the kidneys to be filtered. On … Continue reading The Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

Nephrons and Vessels of the Kidney

Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology The renal artery first divides into segmental arteries, followed by further branching to form interlobar arteries that pass through the renal columns to reach the cortex. The interlobar arteries, in turn, branch into arcuate arteries, cortical radiate arteries, and then into afferent arterioles. The afferent arterioles … Continue reading Nephrons and Vessels of the Kidney