The Clinical Consequences of Transduction

A scanning electron micrograph of Vibrio cholerae shows its characteristic curved rod shape.Source: OpenStax Microbiology OpenStax Microbiology Paul, a 23-year-old relief worker from Atlanta, traveled to Haiti in 2011 to provide aid following the 2010 earthquake. After working there for several weeks, he suddenly began experiencing abdominal distress, including severe cramping, nausea, vomiting, and watery … Continue reading The Clinical Consequences of Transduction

How Asexual Prokaryotes Achieve Genetic Diversity

There are three prokaryote-specific mechanisms leading to horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes. a) In transformation, the cell takes up DNA directly from the environment. The DNA may remain separate as a plasmid or be incorporated into the host genome. b) In transduction, a bacteriophage injects DNA that is a hybrid of viral DNA and DNA … Continue reading How Asexual Prokaryotes Achieve Genetic Diversity

Effects of Mutations on Protein Structure and Function

Mutations can lead to changes in the protein sequence encoded by the DNA.Source: OpenStax Microbiology OpenStax Microbiology Point mutations may have a wide range of effects on protein function. As a consequence of the degeneracy of the genetic code, a point mutation will commonly result in the same amino acid being incorporated into the resulting … Continue reading Effects of Mutations on Protein Structure and Function

The Mechanism of Protein Synthesis

Translation in bacteria begins with the formation of the initiation complex, which includes the small ribosomal subunit, the mRNA, the initiator tRNA carrying N-formyl-methionine, and initiation factors. Then the 50S subunit binds, forming an intact ribosome.Source: OpenStax Microbiology OpenStax Microbiology Translation is similar in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here we will explore how translation occurs in … Continue reading The Mechanism of Protein Synthesis

The Ribosomes

In prokaryotes, multiple RNA polymerases can transcribe a single bacterial gene while numerous ribosomes concurrently translate the mRNA transcripts into polypeptides. In this way, a specific protein can rapidly reach a high concentration in the bacterial cell.Source: OpenStax Microbiology OpenStax Microbiology A ribosome is a complex macromolecule composed of catalytic rRNAs (called ribozymes) and structural … Continue reading The Ribosomes