The Amino Acids and Peptide Bonds

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Source: OpenStax Microbiology

OpenStax Microbiology

An amino acid is an organic molecule in which a hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group (–COOH), and an amino group (–NH2) are all bonded to the same carbon atom, the so-called α carbon. The fourth group bonded to the α carbon varies among the different amino acids and is called a residue or a side chain, represented in structural formulas by the letter R. A residue is a monomer that results when two or more amino acids combine and remove water molecules. The primary structure of a protein, a peptide chain, is made of amino acid residues. The unique characteristics of the functional groups and R groups allow these components of the amino acids to form hydrogen, ionic, and disulfide bonds, along with polar/nonpolar interactions needed to form secondary, tertiary, and quaternary protein structures. These groups are composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur, in the form of hydrocarbons, acids, amides, alcohols, and amines.

Amino acids may chemically bond together by reaction of the carboxylic acid group of one molecule with the amine group of another. This reaction forms a peptide bond and a water molecule and is another example of dehydration synthesis. Molecules formed by chemically linking relatively modest numbers of amino acids (approximately 50 or fewer) are called peptides, and prefixes are often used to specify these numbers: dipeptides (two amino acids), tripeptides (three amino acids), and so forth. More generally, the approximate number of amino acids is designated: oligopeptides are formed by joining up to approximately 20 amino acids, whereas polypeptides are synthesized from up to approximately 50 amino acids. When the number of amino acids linked together becomes very large, or when multiple polypeptides are used as building subunits, the macromolecules that result are called proteins. The continuously variable length (the number of monomers) of these biopolymers, along with the variety of possible R groups on each amino acid, allows for a nearly unlimited diversity in the types of proteins that may be formed.

Peptide bond formation is a dehydration synthesis reaction. The carboxyl group of the first amino acid (alanine) is linked to the amino group of the incoming second amino acid (alanine). In the process, a molecule of water is released.

Source: OpenStax Microbiology


Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: