Unlike Alphaproteobacteria, which survive on a minimal amount of nutrients, the class Betaproteobacteria are eutrophs (or copiotrophs), meaning that they require a copious amount of organic nutrients. Betaproteobacteria often grow between aerobic and anaerobic areas (e.g., in mammalian intestines). Some genera include species that are human pathogens, able to cause severe, sometimes life-threatening disease. The genus Neisseria, for example, includes the bacteria N. gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the STI gonorrhea, and N. meningitides, the causative agent of bacterial meningitis.
Neisseria are cocci that live on mucosal surfaces of the human body. They are fastidious, or difficult to culture, and they require high levels of moisture, nutrient supplements, and carbon dioxide. Also, Neisseria are microaerophilic, meaning that they require low levels of oxygen. For optimal growth and for the purposes of identification, Neisseria spp. are grown on chocolate agar (i.e., agar supplemented by partially hemolyzed red blood cells). Their characteristic pattern of growth in culture is diplococcal: pairs of cells resembling coffee beans.
The pathogen responsible for pertussis (whooping cough) is also a member of Betaproteobacteria. The bacterium Bordetella pertussis, from the order Burkholderiales, produces several toxins that paralyze the movement of cilia in the human respiratory tract and directly damage cells of the respiratory tract, causing a severe cough.
Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology