The Chromalveolata

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(a) Apicomplexans are parasitic protists. They have a characteristic apical complex that enables them to infect host cells. (b) A colorized electron microscope image of a Plasmodium sporozoite. (credit b: modification of work by Ute Frevert)

OpenStax Microbiology

The supergroup Chromalveolata is united by similar origins of its members’ plastids and includes the apicomplexans, ciliates, diatoms, and dinoflagellates, among other groups. The apicomplexans are intra- or extracellular parasites that have an apical complex at one end of the cell. The apical complex is a concentration of organelles, vacuoles, and microtubules that allows the parasite to enter host cells. Apicomplexans have complex life cycles that include an infective sporozoite that undergoes schizogony to make many merozoites. Many are capable of infecting a variety of animal cells, from insects to livestock to humans, and their life cycles often depend on transmission between multiple hosts. The genus Plasmodium is an example of this group.

Other apicomplexans are also medically important. Cryptosporidium parvum causes intestinal symptoms and can cause epidemic diarrhea when the cysts contaminate drinking water. Theileria (Babesia) microti, transmitted by the tick Ixodes scapularis, causes recurring fever that can be fatal and is becoming a common transfusion-transmitted pathogen in the United States (Theileria and Babesia are closely related genera and there is some debate about the best classification). Finally, Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis and can be transmitted from cat feces, unwashed fruit and vegetables, or from undercooked meat. Because toxoplasmosis can be associated with serious birth defects, pregnant women need to be aware of this risk and use caution if they are exposed to the feces of potentially infected cats. A national survey found the frequency of individuals with antibodies for toxoplasmosis (and thus who presumably have a current latent infection) in the United States to be 11%. Rates are much higher in other countries, including some developed countries. There is also evidence and a good deal of theorizing that the parasite may be responsible for altering infected humans’ behavior and personality traits.

The ciliates (Ciliaphora), also within the Chromalveolata, are a large, very diverse group characterized by the presence of cilia on their cell surface. Although the cilia may be used for locomotion, they are often used for feeding, as well, and some forms are nonmotile. Balantidium coli is the only parasitic ciliate that affects humans by causing intestinal illness, although it rarely causes serious medical issues except in the immunocompromised (those having a weakened immune system). Perhaps the most familiar ciliate is Paramecium, a motile organism with a clearly visible cytostome and cytoproct that is often studied in biology laboratories. Another ciliate, Stentor, is sessile and uses its cilia for feeding. Generally, these organisms have a micronucleus that is diploid, somatic, and used for sexual reproduction by conjugation. They also have a macronucleus that is derived from the micronucleus; the macronucleus becomes polyploid (multiple sets of duplicate chromosomes), and has a reduced set of metabolic genes.

Ciliates are able to reproduce through conjugation, in which two cells attach to each other. In each cell, the diploid micronuclei undergo meiosis, producing eight haploid nuclei each. Then, all but one of the haploid micronuclei and the macronucleus disintegrate; the remaining (haploid) micronucleus undergoes mitosis. The two cells then exchange one micronucleus each, which fuses with the remaining micronucleus present to form a new, genetically different, diploid micronucleus. The diploid micronucleus undergoes two mitotic divisions, so each cell has four micronuclei, and two of the four combine to form a new macronucleus. The chromosomes in the macronucleus then replicate repeatedly, the macronucleus reaches its polyploid state, and the two cells separate. The two cells are now genetically different from each other and from their previous versions.

This specimen of the ciliate Balantidium coli is a trophozoite form isolated from the gut of a primate. B. coli is the only ciliate capable of parasitizing humans. (credit: modification of work by Kouassi RYW, McGraw SW, Yao PK, Abou-Bacar A, Brunet J, Pesson B, Bonfoh B, N’goran EK & Candolfi E)

Paramecium has a primitive mouth (called an oral groove) to ingest food, and an anal pore to excrete it. Contractile vacuoles allow the organism to excrete excess water. Cilia enable the organism to move.
This differential interference contrast micrograph (magnification: ×65) of Stentor roeselie shows cilia present on the margins of the structure surrounding the cytostome; the cilia move food particles. (credit: modification of work by “picturepest”/Flickr)

Öomycetes have similarities to fungi and were once classified with them. They are also called water molds. However, they differ from fungi in several important ways. Öomycetes have cell walls of cellulose (unlike the chitinous cell walls of fungi) and they are generally diploid, whereas the dominant life forms of fungi are typically haploid. Phytophthora, the plant pathogen found in the soil that caused the Irish potato famine, is classified within this group.

A saprobic oomycete, or water mold, engulfs a dead insect. (credit: modification of work by Thomas Bresson)

Source: OpenStax Microbiology

Source:

Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology

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