A darkfield microscope is a brightfield microscope that has a small but significant modification to the condenser. A small, opaque disk (about 1 cm in diameter) is placed between the illuminator and the condenser lens. This opaque light stop, as the disk is called, blocks most of the light from the illuminator as it passes through the condenser on its way to the objective lens, producing a hollow cone of light that is focused on the specimen. The only light that reaches the objective is light that has been refracted or reflected by structures in the specimen. The resulting image typically shows bright objects on a dark background.
Darkfield microscopy can often create high-contrast, high-resolution images of specimens without the use of stains, which is particularly useful for viewing live specimens that might be killed or otherwise compromised by the stains. For example, thin spirochetes like Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, can be best viewed using a darkfield microscope.
Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology