The Euryarchaeota

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Halobacteria growing in these salt ponds gives them a distinct purple color. (credit: modification of work by Tony Hisgett)

OpenStax Microbiology

The phylum Euryarchaeota includes several distinct classes. Species in the classes Methanobacteria, Methanococci, and Methanomicrobia represent Archaea that can be generally described as methanogens. Methanogens are unique in that they can reduce carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen, producing methane. They can live in the most extreme environments and can reproduce at temperatures varying from below freezing to boiling. Methanogens have been found in hot springs as well as deep under ice in Greenland. Some scientists have even hypothesized that methanogens may inhabit the planet Mars because the mixture of gases produced by methanogens resembles the makeup of the Martian atmosphere.

Methanogens are thought to contribute to the formation of anoxic sediments by producing hydrogen sulfide, making “marsh gas.” They also produce gases in ruminants and humans. Some genera of methanogens, notably Methanosarcina, can grow and produce methane in the presence of oxygen, although the vast majority are strict anaerobes.

The class Halobacteria (which was named before scientists recognized the distinction between Archaea and Bacteria) includes halophilic (“salt-loving”) archaea. Halobacteria require a very high concentrations of sodium chloride in their aquatic environment. The required concentration is close to saturation, at 36%; such environments include the Dead Sea as well as some salty lakes in Antarctica and south-central Asia. One remarkable feature of these organisms is that they perform photosynthesis using the protein bacteriorhodopsin, which gives them, and the bodies of water they inhabit, a beautiful purple color.

Notable species of Halobacteria include Halobacterium salinarum, which may be the oldest living organism on earth; scientists have isolated its DNA from fossils that are 250 million years old. Another species, Haloferax volcanii, shows a very sophisticated system of ion exchange, which enables it to balance the concentration of salts at high temperatures.


Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: