The Primary Structure, Dysfunctional Proteins, and Cystic Fibrosis


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The normal CFTR protein is a channel protein that helps salt (sodium chloride) move in and out of cells.

Source: OpenStax Microbiology

OpenStax Microbiology

Proteins associated with biological membranes are classified as extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic proteins, also called peripheral proteins, are loosely associated with one side of the membrane. Intrinsic proteins, or integral proteins, are embedded in the membrane and often function as part of transport systems as transmembrane proteins. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a human genetic disorder caused by a change in the transmembrane protein. It affects mostly the lungs but may also affect the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine. CF is caused by a loss of the amino acid phenylalanine in a cystic fibrosis transmembrane protein (CFTR). The loss of one amino acid changes the primary structure of a protein that normally helps transport salt and water in and out of cells.

The change in the primary structure prevents the protein from functioning properly, which causes the body to produce unusually thick mucus that clogs the lungs and leads to the accumulation of sticky mucus. The mucus obstructs the pancreas and stops natural enzymes from helping the body break down food and absorb vital nutrients.

In the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis, the altered mucus provides an environment where bacteria can thrive. This colonization leads to the formation of biofilms in the small airways of the lungs. The most common pathogens found in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia. Pseudomonas differentiates within the biofilm in the lung and forms large colonies, called “mucoid” Pseudomonas. The colonies have a unique pigmentation that shows up in laboratory tests and provides physicians with the first clue that the patient has CF (such colonies are rare in healthy individuals).

(a) A scanning electron micrograph shows the opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (b) Pigment-producing P. aeruginosa on cetrimide agar shows the green pigment called pyocyanin. (credit a: modification of work by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)


Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: