Carl Linnaeus used a system of binomial nomenclature, a two-word naming system for identifying organisms by genus and species. For example, modern humans are in the genus Homo and have the species name sapiens, so their scientific name in binomial nomenclature is Homo sapiens. In binomial nomenclature, the genus part of the name is always capitalized; it is followed by the species name, which is not capitalized. Both names are italicized.
Taxonomic names in the 18th through 20th centuries were typically derived from Latin, since that was the common language used by scientists when taxonomic systems were first created. Today, newly discovered organisms can be given names derived from Latin, Greek, or English. Sometimes these names reflect some distinctive trait of the organism; in other cases, microorganisms are named after the scientists who discovered them. The archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi is an example of both of these naming schemes. The genus, Haloquadratum, describes the microorganism’s saltwater habitat (halo is derived from the Greek word for “salt”) as well as the arrangement of its square cells, which are arranged in square clusters of four cells (quadratum is Latin for “foursquare”). The species, walsbyi, is named after Anthony Edward Walsby, the microbiologist who discovered Haloquadratum walsbyi in in 1980. While it might seem easier to give an organism a common descriptive name—like a redheaded woodpecker—we can imagine how that could become problematic. What happens when another species of woodpecker with red head coloring is discovered? The systematic nomenclature scientists use eliminates this potential problem by assigning each organism a single, unique two-word name that is recognized by scientists all over the world.
Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology