The study and comparison of entire genomes, including the complete set of genes and their nucleotide sequence and organization, is called genomics. This field has great potential for future medical advances through the study of the human genome as well as the genomes of infectious organisms. Analysis of microbial genomes has contributed to the development of new antibiotics, diagnostic tools, vaccines, medical treatments, and environmental cleanup techniques.
The field of transcriptomics is the science of the entire collection of mRNA molecules produced by cells. Scientists compare gene expression patterns between infected and uninfected host cells, gaining important information about the cellular responses to infectious disease. Additionally, transcriptomics can be used to monitor the gene expression of virulence factors in microorganisms, aiding scientists in better understanding pathogenic processes from this viewpoint.
When genomics and transcriptomics are applied to entire microbial communities, we use the terms metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, respectively. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics allow researchers to study genes and gene expression from a collection of multiple species, many of which may not be easily cultured or cultured at all in the laboratory. A DNA microarray (discussed in the previous section) can be used in metagenomics studies.
Another up-and-coming clinical application of genomics and transcriptomics is pharmacogenomics, also called toxicogenomics, which involves evaluating the effectiveness and safety of drugs on the basis of information from an individual’s genomic sequence. Genomic responses to drugs can be studied using experimental animals (such as laboratory rats or mice) or live cells in the laboratory before embarking on studies with humans. Changes in gene expression in the presence of a drug can sometimes be an early indicator of the potential for toxic effects. Personal genome sequence information may someday be used to prescribe medications that will be most effective and least toxic on the basis of the individual patient’s genotype.
The study of proteomics is an extension of genomics that allows scientists to study the entire complement of proteins in an organism, called the proteome. Even though all cells of a multicellular organism have the same set of genes, cells in various tissues produce different sets of proteins. Thus, the genome is constant, but the proteome varies and is dynamic within an organism. Proteomics may be used to study which proteins are expressed under various conditions within a single cell type or to compare protein expression patterns between different organisms.
The most prominent disease being studied with proteomic approaches is cancer, but this area of study is also being applied to infectious diseases. Research is currently underway to examine the feasibility of using proteomic approaches to diagnose various types of hepatitis, tuberculosis, and HIV infection, which are rather difficult to diagnose using currently available techniques.
A recent and developing proteomic analysis relies on identifying proteins called biomarkers, whose expression is affected by the disease process. Biomarkers are currently being used to detect various forms of cancer as well as infections caused by pathogens such as Yersinia pestis and Vaccinia virus.
Other “-omic” sciences related to genomics and proteomics include metabolomics, glycomics, and lipidomics, which focus on the complete set of small-molecule metabolites, sugars, and lipids, respectively, found within a cell. Through these various global approaches, scientists continue to collect, compile, and analyze large amounts of genetic information. This emerging field of bioinformatics can be used, among many other applications, for clues to treating diseases and understanding the workings of cells.
Additionally, researchers can use reverse genetics, a technique related to classic mutational analysis, to determine the function of specific genes. Classic methods of studying gene function involved searching for the genes responsible for a given phenotype. Reverse genetics uses the opposite approach, starting with a specific DNA sequence and attempting to determine what phenotype it produces. Alternatively, scientists can attach known genes (called reporter genes) that encode easily observable characteristics to genes of interest, and the location of expression of such genes of interest can be easily monitored. This gives the researcher important information about what the gene product might be doing or where it is located in the organism. Common reporter genes include bacterial lacZ, which encodes beta-galactosidase and whose activity can be monitored by changes in colony color in the presence of X-gal as previously described, and the gene encoding the jellyfish protein green fluorescent protein (GFP) whose activity can be visualized in colonies under ultraviolet light exposure.
Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology