Physical and chemical methods of microbial control that kill the targeted microorganism are identified by the suffix -cide (or -cidal). The prefix indicates the type of microbe or infectious agent killed by the treatment method: bactericides kill bacteria, viricides kill or inactivate viruses, and fungicides kill fungi. Other methods do not kill organisms but, instead, stop their growth, making their population static; such methods are identified by the suffix -stat (or -static). For example, bacteriostatic treatments inhibit the growth of bacteria, whereas fungistatic treatments inhibit the growth of fungi. Factors that determine whether a particular treatment is -cidal or -static include the types of microorganisms targeted, the concentration of the chemical used, and the nature of the treatment applied.
Although -static treatments do not actually kill infectious agents, they are often less toxic to humans and other animals, and may also better preserve the integrity of the item treated. Such treatments are typically sufficient to keep the microbial population of an item in check. The reduced toxicity of some of these -static chemicals also allows them to be impregnated safely into plastics to prevent the growth of microbes on these surfaces. Such plastics are used in products such as toys for children and cutting boards for food preparation. When used to treat an infection, -static treatments are typically sufficient in an otherwise healthy individual, preventing the pathogen from multiplying, thus allowing the individual’s immune system to clear the infection.
The degree of microbial control can be evaluated using a microbial death curve to describe the progress and effectiveness of a particular protocol. When exposed to a particular microbial control protocol, a fixed percentage of the microbes within the population will die. Because the rate of killing remains constant even when the population size varies, the percentage killed is more useful information than the absolute number of microbes killed. Death curves are often plotted as semilog plots just like microbial growth curves because the reduction in microorganisms is typically logarithmic. The amount of time it takes for a specific protocol to produce a one orderof-magnitude decrease in the number of organisms, or the death of 90% of the population, is called the decimal reduction time (DRT) or D-value.
Several factors contribute to the effectiveness of a disinfecting agent or microbial control protocol. First, as demonstrated in the image above, the length of time of exposure is important. Longer exposure times kill mor microbes. Because microbial death of a population exposed to a specific protocol is logarithmic, it takes longer to kill a high-population load than a low-population load exposed to the same protocol. A shorter treatment time (measured in multiples of the D-value) is needed when starting with a smaller number of organisms. Effectiveness also depends on the susceptibility of the agent to that disinfecting agent or protocol. The concentration of disinfecting agent or intensity of exposure is also important. For example, higher temperatures and higher concentrations of disinfectants kill microbes more quickly and effectively. Conditions that limit contact between the agent and the targeted cells cells—for example, the presence of bodily fluids, tissue, organic debris (e.g., mud or feces), or biofilms on surfaces—increase the cleaning time or intensity of the microbial control protocol required to reach the desired level of cleanliness. All these factors must be considered when choosing the appropriate protocol to control microbial growth in a given situation.
Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology