Human skin is made up of several layers and sublayers. The two main layers are the epidermis and the dermis. These layers cover a third layer of tissue called the hypodermis, which consists of fibrous and adipose connective tissue.
The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, and it is relatively thin. The exterior surface of the epidermis, called the stratum corneum, primarily consists of dead skin cells. This layer of dead cells limits direct contact between the outside world and live cells. The stratum corneum is rich in keratin, a tough, fibrous protein that is also found in hair and nails. Keratin helps make the outer surface of the skin relatively tough and waterproof. It also helps to keep the surface of the skin dry, which reduces microbial growth. However, some microbes are still able to live on the surface of the skin, and some of these can be shed with dead skin cells in the process of desquamation, which is the shedding and peeling of skin that occurs as a normal process but that may be accelerated when infection is present.
Beneath the epidermis lies a thicker skin layer called the dermis. The dermis contains connective tissue and embedded structures such as blood vessels, nerves, and muscles. Structures called hair follicles (from which hair grows) are located within the dermis, even though much of their structure consists of epidermal tissue. The dermis also contains the two major types of glands found in human skin: sweat glands (tubular glands that produce sweat) and sebaceous glands (which are associated with hair follicles and produce sebum, a lipid-rich substance containing proteins and minerals).
Perspiration (sweat) provides some moisture to the epidermis, which can increase the potential for microbial growth. For this reason, more microbes are found on the regions of the skin that produce the most sweat, such as the skin of the underarms and groin. However, in addition to water, sweat also contains substances that inhibit microbial growth, such as salts, lysozyme, and antimicrobial peptides. Sebum also serves to protect the skin and reduce water loss. Although some of the lipids and fatty acids in sebum inhibit microbial growth, sebum contains compounds that provide nutrition for certain microbes.
Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology