By Nephron - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, OpenStax Microbiology Strongyloidiasis is generally caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil-transmitted helminth with both free-living and parasitic forms. In the parasitic form, the larvae of these nematodes generally penetrate the body through the skin, especially through bare feet, although transmission through organ transplantation or at facilities like day-care centers can also occur. … Continue reading Strongyloidiasis

Rheumatic Fever

By CDC/Dr. Edwin P. Ewing, Jr. - Public Health Image Library (PHIL) ID#: 847, Public Domain, OpenStax Microbiology Infections with S. pyogenes have a variety of manifestations and complications generally called sequelae. As mentioned, the bacterium can cause suppurative infections like puerperal fever. However, this microbe can also cause nonsuppurative sequelae in the form of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), … Continue reading Rheumatic Fever


By James Heilman, MD - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, OpenStax Microbiology Osteomyelitis is an inflammation of bone tissues most commonly caused by infection. These infections can either be acute or chronic and can involve a variety of different bacteria. The most common causative agent of osteomyelitis is S. aureus. However, M. tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae, species … Continue reading Osteomyelitis

Infectious Arthritis

Septic arthritis of the ankle as seen in a 3 month old.Source: By Tetsuo Hagino, Masanori Wako, Satoshi Ochiai -, CC BY 2.5, OpenStax Microbiology Also called septic arthritis, infectious arthritis can be either an acute or a chronic condition. Infectious arthritis is characterized by inflammation of joint tissues and is most often caused by bacterial … Continue reading Infectious Arthritis

Toxic Shock Syndrome and Streptococcal Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 protein from staphylococcus.Source: By Jawahar Swaminathan and MSD staff at the European Bioinformatics Institute -, displayed on, Public Domain, OpenStax Microbiology Toxemia associated with infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus can cause staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Some strains of S. aureus produce a superantigen called toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). TSS may occur as … Continue reading Toxic Shock Syndrome and Streptococcal Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome

Infections of the Circulatory System

Bartonella henselae bacilli in cardiac valve of a patient with blood culture-negative endocarditis. The bacilli appear as black granulations.Source: By Photo: Warthin Starry - Photo: Warthin Starry, from Traditional and Molecular Techniques for the Study of Emerging Bacterial Diseases: One Laboratory’s Perspective, Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, Vol. 8, No, 2, February 2002, Center for Disease Control. URL: … Continue reading Infections of the Circulatory System

The Circulatory System

The major components of the human circulatory system include the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. This network delivers blood to the body’s organs and tissues. (credit top left: modification of work by Mariana Ruiz Villareal; credit bottom right: modification of work by Bruce Blaus) OpenStax Microbiology The circulatory (or cardiovascular) system is a closed network … Continue reading The Circulatory System

Hydatid Disease

By CDC -, Public Domain, OpenStax Microbiology Another cestode, Echinococcus granulosus, causes a serious infection known as hydatid disease (cystic echinococcosis). E. granulosus is found in dogs (the definitive host), as well as several intermediate hosts (sheep, pigs, goats, cattle). The cestodes are transmitted through eggs in the feces from infected animals, which can be an occupational hazard … Continue reading Hydatid Disease