The zoonotic infection rat-bite fever can be caused by two different gram-negative bacteria: Streptobacillus moniliformis, which is more common in North America, and Spirillum minor, which is more common in Asia. Because of modern sanitation efforts, rat bites are rare in the US. However, contact with fomites, food, or water contaminated by rat feces or body fluids can also cause infections. Signs and symptoms of rat-bite fever include fever, vomiting, myalgia (muscle pain), arthralgia (joint pain), and a maculopapular rash on the hands and feet. An ulcer may also form at the site of a bite, along with some swelling of nearby lymph nodes. In most cases, the infection is self-limiting. Little is known about the virulence factors that contribute to these signs and symptoms of disease.
Cell culture, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, PCR, or ELISA can be used in the identification of Streptobacillus moniliformis. The diagnosis Spirillum minor may be confirmed by direct microscopic observation of the pathogens in blood using Giemsa or Wright stains, or darkfield microscopy. Serological tests can be used to detect a host immune response to the pathogens after about 10 days. The most commonly used antibiotics to treat these infections are penicillin or doxycycline.
Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology