The Cells of the Nervous System

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a) A drawing of a neuron. The cell body contains the nucleus and has short projections called dendrite. The cell also has a long projection called an axon wrapped in a layer called the myelin sheath. The myelin sheath layer covers most of the axon but also produces uncovered spaces at set intervals; each space is called a node of Ranvier. The myelin sheath is made from oligodendrocytes. At the end of the axon is a synapse. B) Diagram of a synapse. This is the region where two neurons come together (but they do not touch). The presynaptic neuron releases neurotransmitters into the synapse space. The post synaptic neuron has receptors on which the neurotransmitters attach.
(a) A myelinated neuron is associated with oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocytes are a type of glial cell that forms the myelin sheath in the CNS that insulates the axon so that electrochemical nerve impulses are transferred more efficiently. (b) A synapse consists of the axonal end of the presynaptic neuron (top) that releases neurotransmitters that cross the synaptic space (or cleft) and bind to receptors on dendrites of the postsynaptic neuron (bottom).

Source: OpenStax Microbiology

OpenStax Microbiology

Tissues of the PNS and CNS are formed of cells called glial cells (neuroglial cells) and neurons (nerve cells). Glial cells assist in the organization of neurons, provide a scaffold for some aspects of neuronal function, and aid in recovery from neural injury.

Neurons are specialized cells found throughout the nervous system that transmit signals through the nervous system using electrochemical processes. The basic structure of a neuron is shown in the image above. The cell body (or soma) is the metabolic center of the neuron and contains the nucleus and most of the cell’s organelles. The many finely branched extensions from the soma are called dendrites. The soma also produces an elongated extension, called the axon, which is responsible for the transmission of electrochemical signals through elaborate ion transport processes. Axons of some types of neurons can extend up to one meter in length in the human body. To facilitate electrochemical signal transmission, some neurons have a myelin sheath surrounding the axon. Myelin, formed from the cell membranes of glial cells like the Schwann cells in the PNS and oligodendrocytes in the CNS, surrounds and insulates the axon, significantly increasing the speed of electrochemical signal transmission along the axon. The end of an axon forms numerous branches that end in bulbs called synaptic terminals. Neurons form junctions with other cells, such as another neuron, with which they exchange signals. The junctions, which are actually gaps between neurons, are referred to as synapses. At each synapse, there is a presynaptic neuron and a postsynaptic neuron (or other cell). The synaptic terminals of the axon of the presynaptic terminal form the synapse with the dendrites, soma, or sometimes the axon of the postsynaptic neuron, or a part of another type of cell such as a muscle cell. The synaptic terminals contain vesicles filled with chemicals called neurotransmitters. When the electrochemical signal moving down the axon reaches the synapse, the vesicles fuse with the membrane, and neurotransmitters are released, which diffuse across the synapse and bind to receptors on the membrane of the postsynaptic cell, potentially initiating a response in that cell. That response in the postsynaptic cell might include further propagation of an electrochemical signal to transmit information or contraction of a muscle fiber.

Source:

Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology


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