Terms and Definition: Introduction to Human Anatomy

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adipose tissue – is a connective tissue composed of adipocytes or fat cells

anchoring junction – are cell junctions that are anchored to one another

apical – term that refers to the top surface

areolar tissue – loose connective tissue that holds organs in place and attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues

basal – term that refers to the bottom surface

bone cell matrix – consist of organic components mainly collagen fibers and calcium phosphate salts

calcium phosphate – the ground substance of the bone

canaliculi – channels that allow communication between blood and the bone cells

cardiac muscle tissue – muscle tissue which is striated and branching and has short dark lines between cells called intercalated disc

cardiovascular system – organ system for internal transport of cells and dissolved materials including nutrients, wastes, and gases

central canal – part of the bone that contains the vessels and nerves

chondrocytes – are called the cartilage cells, and produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix, which consists mainly of collagen and proteoglycans

chondroitin sulfate – refers to the ground substance of cartilage

ciliated epithelium – epithelium that has hair-like structures on it

collagen – is the main structural protein in the extracellular matrix in the various connective tissues in the body

columnar – relating to a column-shape

compact bone – the hard outer layer of bones

cross section – a surface or shape that is or would be exposed by making a straight cut through something, especially at right angles to an axis

cuboidal – relating to cube-shape

dendrite – part of neuron that receives the stimulus

dense irregular connective tissue – dense connective tissue that has fibers that are not arranged in parallel bundles

dense regular connective tissue – dense connective tissue that has collagen fibers bundled in a parallel fashion

differentiation – the process by which cell undergoes change in gene expression to become more specific type of cell

digestive system – organ system for processing of food and absorption of nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water

extracellular fluid – refers to the fluid outside of the cell

ectoderm – early development outer layer tissue that gives rise to nerve cells, neuroglial cell, brain, spinal cord, nerves, epidermis of skin

elastic cartilage – is a cartilage that contains elastic fiber networks and collagen type II fibers

elastic fiber – a yellowish fiber composed chiefly of elastin and occurring in networks or sheets which give elasticity to tissues in the body

endocrine system – is a chemical messenger system comprising feedback loops of the hormones released by internal glands of an organism directly into the circulatory system, regulating distant target organs

endoderm – early development inner layer tissue that gives rise to internal linings of respiratory tract and digestive system

epithelial tissue – tissue that lines the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs

fibrocartilage – cartilage that contains fibrous bundles of collagen, such as that of the inter-vertebral disks in the spinal cord and the meniscus of knee

frontal section – section that separates anterior from posterior region, and can be also called coronal section

glial cell – non-neuronal cell that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons

Haversian canal – any of the minute tubes which form a network in bone and contain blood vessels

Haversian system – also called the osteon, is the fundamental functional unit of much compact bone

histamine – a compound which is released by cells in response to injury and in allergic and inflammatory reactions, causing contraction of smooth muscle and dilation of capillaries

homeostasis – refers to the regulation of a relatively constant internal environment

hyalin cartilage – is the glass-like but translucent cartilage found on many joint surfaces, and can also be found in costal cartilage, end of nose, larynx, trachea, and bronchi

integumentary system – organ system for protection against environmental hazards, water retention, thermoregulation, vitamin D synthesis, cutaneous sensation and nonverbal communication.

internal environment – environment that surrounds the cells

lacunae – cavity in bone where osteocytes are found

lamellae – a thin layer, membrane, or plate of tissue, especially in bone

longitudinal section – pertains to a section that has been cut down along its longest dimension

lymphatic system – organ system for defense against infection and disease, and is made up of large network of lymphatic vessels, lymphatic or lymphoid organs, and lymphoid tissues

mast cell – cell that releases histamine and plays the role of early inflammation

mesoderm – early development middle layer tissue that gives rise to kidney, liver, muscles, and bones

microvilli – minute projections from the surface of some cells which increases the surface area of the epithelial surface and can be found in digestive tracts

midsagittal section – section that separates equal right and left parts

mitosis – refers to the division of the entire cell

monocytes – a large phagocytic white blood cell with a simple oval nucleus and clear, grayish cytoplasm and gives rise to macrophages

muscular system – organ system for locomotion, support, and heat production

nerve fibers – refers to the axon of a neuron

nervous system – organ system for directing immediate responses to stimuli usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems

organ – two or more tissue types group together for common function

organ system – a number of organs group together for common function

organism – all the organ system group together for common function

osteoblast – a cell responsible for production of new bone tissue matrix

osteoclast – a cell responsible for breaking down of bone tissue

osteocyte – a cell responsible for the maintenance of bone tissue

osteon – unit structure of thick compact bone tissue

osteoprogenitor cell – are called the bone stem cell which gives rise to osteoblast and osteocyte

parasagittal section – section that separates unequal right and left parts

periosteum – a dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones except at the surfaces of the joints

phagocytosis – the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans

pseudostratified – relating to a single layer but looks many

red bone marrow – bone marrow responsible for the production of red blood cell and white blood cell

reproductive system – organ system for production of sex cells and hormones

respiratory system – organ system for delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur

reticular fiber – is a type of fiber in connective tissue composed of type III collagen secreted by reticular cells, and can be called the framework of solid organs

sagittal section – section that separates right and left portion

secretion – the release of substances from a cell into the internal environment or into body cavities or ducts

skeletal muscle tissue – muscle tissue which is striated tissue and is under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system

skeletal system – organ system for support, protection of soft tissues, mineral storage, and blood formation

smooth muscle tissue – is an involuntary muscle tissue which is unbranched in appearance and has spindle-shaped structure, and usually found in the walls of hollow organ

spongy bones – sometimes called cancellous bone which consist of branching plates called trabeculae

squamous – denoting a layer of epithelium that consists of very thin flattened cells

stereocilia – mechano-sensing organelles of hair cells found only in the inner ear

tissue – collection of similar cell and extracellular materials that perform specific function

trabeculae – the branching plates found in spongy bones

transitional epithelium – epithelium that can be stretched and unstretched usually found in the lining of urinary bladder and ureters

transverse section – section that separates superior from inferior region and can also be called cross section

urinary system – organ system for elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products

yellow bone marrow – bone marrow made up of mostly fat

zygote – a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes, the sperm and the ovum

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Source:

Pearson Education. https://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education.html

Palomar College. https://www2.palomar.edu/

https://en.wikipedia.org/

https://www.lexico.com/

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