Hydrolysis (OpenStax Biology 2e)
Polymers break down into monomers during hydrolysis. A chemical reaction occurs when inserting a water molecule across the bond. Breaking a covalent bond with this water molecule in the compound achieves this. During these reactions, the polymer breaks into two components: one part gains a hydrogen atom (H+) and the other gains a hydroxyl molecule (OH–) from a split water molecule.Hydrolysis is used broadly for substitution, elimination, and fragmentation reactions in which water is the nucleophile.
Dehydration and hydrolysis reactions are catalyzed, or “sped up,” by specific enzymes; dehydration reactions involve the formation of new bonds, requiring energy, while hydrolysis reactions break bonds and release energy. These reactions are similar for most macromolecules, but each monomer and polymer reaction is specific for its class. For example, catalytic enzymes in the digestive system hydrolyze or break down the food we ingest into smaller molecules. This allows cells in our body to easily absorb nutrients in the intestine. A specific enzyme breaks down each macromolecule. For instance, amylase, sucrase, lactase, or maltase break down carbohydrates. Enzymes called proteases, such as pepsin and peptidase, and hydrochloric acid break down proteins. Lipases break down lipids. These broken down macromolecules provide energy for cellular activities.– What is a class of organic addition reaction that typically proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule?
– What is a conversion that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule or ion?
Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology-2e
Research Article: Optimisation of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peel to produce fermentable sugars
Date Published: September 17, 2015 Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Author(s): Richard Bayitse, Xiaoru Hou, Anne-Belinda Bjerre, Firibu Kwasi Saalia. http://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-015-0146-z Abstract: Enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peels was evaluated using cellulase and beta-glucanase enzymes and their mixtures at three different enzyme loadings with time. The pH of the medium used for hydrolysis was 5 and the … Continue reading
Date Published: February 10, 2018 Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Author(s): Tim Sewczyk, Marieke Hoog Antink, Michael Maas, Stephen Kroll, Sascha Beutel. http://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-018-0548-9 Abstract: Food protein hydrolysates are often produced in unspecific industrial batch processes. The hydrolysates composition underlies process-related fluctuations and therefore the obtained peptide fingerprint and bioactive properties may vary. To overcome this obstacle … Continue reading
Date Published: August 16, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Laura Navone, Robert Speight, Pratul K. Agarwal. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202608 Abstract: Keratin is the structural protein in hair, nails, feathers and horns. Keratin is recalcitrant, highly disulfide bonded and is generally inaccessible to common proteases. Only certain types of proteases, called keratinases, are able to cleave … Continue reading
Date Published: October 27, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Lili Lu, Qian Liu, Lan Jin, Zhenhao Yin, Li Xu, Min Xiao, Alberto G Passi. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140531 Abstract: Rhamnose containing chemicals (RCCs) are widely occurred in plants and bacteria and are known to possess important bioactivities. However, few of them were available using the enzymatic … Continue reading