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The molecular structures of glyceraldehyde, an aldose, and dihydroxyacetone, a ketose, are shown. Both sugars have a three-carbon backbone. Glyceraldehyde has a carbonyl group (c double bonded to O) at one end of the carbon chain with hydroxyl (OH) groups attached to the other carbons. Dihydroxyacetone has a carbonyl group in the middle of the chain and alcohol groups at each end. The molecular structures of linear forms of ribose, a pentose, and glucose, a hexose, are also shown. Both ribose and glucose are aldoses with a carbonyl group at the end of chain,and hydroxyl groups attached to the other carbons.
Scientists classify monosaccharides based on the position of their carbonyl group and the number of carbons in the backbone. Aldoses have a carbonyl group (indicated in green) at the end of the carbon chain, and ketoses have a carbonyl group in the middle of the carbon chain. Trioses, pentoses, and hexoses have three-, five-, and six- carbon backbones, respectively.

Source: OpenStax Biology 2e

Monosaccharides (OpenStax Biology 2e)

Monosaccharides (mono- = “one”; sacchar- = “sweet”) are simple sugars, the most common of which is glucose. In monosaccharides, the number of carbons usually ranges from three to seven. Most monosaccharide names end with the suffix -ose. If the sugar has an aldehyde group (the functional group with the structure R-CHO), it is an aldose, and if it has a ketone group (the functional group with the structure RC(=O)R’), it is a ketose. Depending on the number of carbons in the sugar, they can be trioses (three carbons), pentoses (five carbons), and/or hexoses (six carbons).

– Monosaccharides are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units of what biomolecules?

The chemical formula for glucose is C6H12O6. In humans, glucose is an important source of energy. During cellular respiration, energy releases from glucose, and that energy helps make adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Plants synthesize glucose using carbon dioxide and water, and glucose in turn provides energy requirements for the plant. Humans and other animals that feed on plants often store excess glucose as catabolized (cell breakdown of larger molecules) starch.

Monosaccharides, largely hexoses and pentoses, require no intestinal digestion prior to absorption, but oligosaccharides must be hydrolyzed to monosaccharides before they can be absorbed.

Galactose (part of lactose, or milk sugar) and fructose (found in sucrose, in fruit) are other common monosaccharides. Although glucose, galactose, and fructose all have the same chemical formula (C6H12O6), they differ structurally and chemically (and are isomers) because of the different arrangement of functional groups around the asymmetric carbon. All these monosaccharides have more than one asymmetric carbon.

– What is a polysaccharide consisting of polymerized galactose?

The molecular structures of the linear forms of glucose, galactose, and fructose are shown. Glucose and galactose are both aldoses with a carbonyl group (carbon double-bonded to oxygen) at one end of the molecule. A hydroxyl (OH) group is attached to each of the other residues. In glucose, the hydroxyl group attached to the second carbon is on the left side of the molecular structure and all other hydroxyl groups are on the right. In galactose, the hydroxyl groups attached to the third and fourth carbons are on the left, and the hydroxyl groups attached to the second, fifth and sixth carbon are on the right. Frucose is a ketose with C doubled bonded to O at the second carbon. All other carbons have hydroxyl groups associated with them. The hydroxyl group associated with the third carbon is on the left, and all the other hydroxyl groups are on the right.
Glucose, galactose, and fructose are all hexoses. They are structural isomers, meaning they have the same chemical formula (C6H12O6) but a different atom arrangement.

Source: OpenStax Biology 2e

Glucose, galactose, and fructose are isomeric monosaccharides (hexoses), meaning they have the same chemical formula but have slightly different structures. Glucose and galactose are aldoses, and fructose is a ketose.

Glucose and fructose occur not only in living cells, but also in the xylem sap of certain trees such as maples and birches.

Monosaccharides can exist as a linear chain or as ring-shaped molecules. In aqueous solutions they are usually in ring forms. Glucose in a ring form can have two different hydroxyl group arrangements (OH) around the anomeric carbon (carbon 1 that becomes asymmetric in the ring formation process). If the hydroxyl group is below carbon number 1 in the sugar, it is in the alpha (α) position, and if it is above the plane, it is in the beta (β) position.

– What is a monosaccharide containing one ketone group per molecule?

The conversion of glucose between linear and ring forms is shown. The glucose ring has five carbons and an oxygen. In alpha glucose, the first hydroxyl group is locked in a down position, and in beta glucose, the ring is locked in an up position. Structures for ring forms of ribose and fructose are also shown. Both sugars have a ring with four carbons and an oxygen.
Five and six carbon monosaccharides exist in equilibrium between linear and ring forms. When the ring forms, the side chain it closes on locks into an α or β position. Fructose and ribose also form rings, although they form five-membered rings as opposed to the six-membered ring of glucose.

Source: OpenStax Biology 2e


Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at:


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