Dehydration Synthesis (OpenStax Biology 2e)
Most macromolecules are made from single subunits, or building blocks, called monomers. The monomers combine with each other using covalent bonds to form larger molecules known as polymers. In doing so, monomers release water molecules as byproducts. This type of reaction is dehydration synthesis, which means “to put together while losing water.”
In a dehydration synthesis reaction, the hydrogen of one monomer combines with the hydroxyl group of another monomer, releasing a water molecule. At the same time, the monomers share electrons and form covalent bonds. As additional monomers join, this chain of repeating monomers forms a polymer. Different monomer types can combine in many configurations, giving rise to a diverse group of macromolecules. Even one kind of monomer can combine in a variety of ways to form several different polymers. For example, glucose monomers are the constituents of starch, glycogen, and cellulose.– What is a conversion that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule or ion?
A peptide bond is a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water.
Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology-2e
Pre-Competition Weight Loss Models in Taekwondo: Identification, Characteristics and Risk of Dehydration
Athletes use different combinations of weight loss methods during competition preparation. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pre-competition weight loss models, which describe these combinations. The second aim was to determine if any existing model pose a higher risk of severe dehydration and whether any of the models could be continued as a lower-risk option. The third aim was to explore whether athletes who used different weight management strategies could be differentiated based on age, sex, training experience or anthropometric parameters. Study participants were randomly selected from Olympic taekwondo competitors and 192 athletes were enrolled. Active (47% weight-reducing athletes), passive (31%) and extreme (22%) models have been described. In the extreme model, athletes combined the highest number of different weight loss methods (3.9 ± 0.9 methods vs. 2.4 ± 0.9 in active and 1.5 ± 0.6 in passive), reduced significantly more body mass than others (6.7 ± 3.5% body mass vs. 4.3 ± 1.9% and 4.5 ± 2.4%; p < 0.01) and all of them used methods with the highest risk of severe dehydration. The active and passive models could be continued as a lower-risk option, if athletes do not combine dehydrating methods and do not prolong the low energy availability phase. The extreme model carried the highest risk of severe dehydration. Every fifth weight-reducing taekwondo athlete may have been exposed to the adverse effects of acute weight loss. Taekwondo athletes, regardless of age, sex, training experience and anthropometric parameters, lose weight before the competition and those characteristics do not differentiate them between models.
Keywords: body weight; body weight changes; cluster analysis; combat sports; dehydration; martial arts; weight loss; young adult.
Rapid dehydration of grape berries dampens the post-ripening transcriptomic program and the metabolite profile evolution
The postharvest dehydration of grape berries allows the concentration of sugars and other solutes and promotes the synthesis of metabolites and aroma compounds unique to high-quality raisin wines such as the passito wines made in Italy. These dynamic changes are dependent on environmental parameters such as temperature and relative humidity, as well as endogenous factors such as berry morphology and genotype, but the contribution of each variable is not well understood. Here, we compared berries subjected to natural or accelerated dehydration, the latter driven by forced air flow. We followed the evolution of transcript and metabolite profiles and found that accelerated dehydration clearly dampened the natural transcriptomic and metabolomic programs of postharvest berries. We found that slow dehydration over a prolonged duration is necessary to induce gene expression and metabolite accumulation associated with the final quality traits of dehydrated berries. The accumulation of key metabolites (particularly stilbenoids) during postharvest dehydration is inhibited by rapid dehydration conditions that shorten the berry life time.
Keywords: Gene expression; Secondary metabolism.
Furfural chemistry is one of the most promising platforms directly derived from lignocellulose biomass. In this study, a niobium-based catalyst (mNb-bc) was synthesized by a new fast and simple method. This new method uses microemulsion to obtain a catalyst with a high specific surface area (340 m2 g-1), defined mesoporosity, and high acidity (65 μmol g-1). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that mNb-bc has a rough surface. The mNb-bc was used to catalyze the conversion reaction of xylose into 2-furfuraldehyde in a monophasic system using water as a green solvent. This reaction was investigated using a 23 experimental design by varying the temperature, time, and catalyst-to-xylose ratio (CXR). The responses evaluated were xylose conversion (X c), reaction yield (Y), and selectivity to 2-furfuraldehyde (S). The optimized reaction conditions were used to evaluate the reaction kinetics. At milder reaction conditions of 140 °C, 2 h, and a CXR of 10%, mNb-bc led to an X c value of 41.2%, an S value of 77.1%, and a Y value of 31.8%.