The Nucleus

The nucleus stores chromatin (DNA plus proteins) in a gel-like substance called the nucleoplasm. The nucleolus is a condensed chromatin region where ribosome synthesis occurs. We call the nucleus' boundary the nuclear envelope. It consists of two phospholipid bilayers: an outer and an inner membrane. The nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. Nuclear … Continue reading The Nucleus

The Evolutionary Significance of Cytochrome c

By Vossman - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, OpenStax Biology 2e Cytochrome c is an important component of the electron transport chain, a part of cellular respiration, and it is normally located in the cellular organelle, the mitochondrion. This protein has a heme prosthetic group, and the heme's central ion alternately reduces and oxidizes … Continue reading The Evolutionary Significance of Cytochrome c

Image: Stentors

Photo Credit: Dr. Igor Siwanowicz Like Mini Trumpets Stentors are a group of single-celled protozoan that lives in freshwater. They are filter-feeders and heterotrophic ciliates, and are usually shaped like a horn. They can reach two millimeters in length hence, they are among the largest known unicellular organisms that exist. Source:

Highlights: A New Ebola Outbreak Kills Five People in Congo

Photo Credit: The new Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) killed five people including a 15-year-old girl.According to UNICEF, nine cases have been reported.The infected individuals are being treated at the Wangata Hospital in Mbandaka.The outbreak is the 11th in the country of the deadly Ebola virus which is transmitted by … Continue reading Highlights: A New Ebola Outbreak Kills Five People in Congo


Four fused hydrocarbon rings comprise steroids such as cholesterol and cortisol. Source: OpenStax Biology 2e OpenStax Biology 2e Steroids have a fused ring structure. Although they do not resemble the other lipids, scientists group them with them because they are also hydrophobic and insoluble in water. All steroids have four linked carbon rings and several of … Continue reading Steroids

Trans Fats

By Kagor at the Ukrainian language Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, OpenStax Biology 2e The food industry artificially hydrogenates oils to make them semi-solid and of a consistency desirable for many processed food products. Simply speaking, hydrogen gas is bubbled through oils to solidify them. During this hydrogenation process, double bonds of the cis- conformation in … Continue reading Trans Fats

Registered Dietitian

By Djblatner - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, OpenStax Biology 2e Obesity is a worldwide health concern, and many diseases such as diabetes and heart disease are becoming more prevalent because of obesity. This is one of the reasons why people increasingly seek out registered dietitians for advice. Registered dietitians help plan nutrition programs … Continue reading Registered Dietitian

Highlights: Comb Jelly Becomes Cannibal During Food Shortage

Photo Credit: Mnemiopsis leidyi is a species of comb jelly and normally found in the waters of western Atlantic coast. They are considered invasive species in Europe and in western Asia. They feed on zooplankton which includes crustaceans, and juvenile fishes.Scientists still do not know how this species was able to thrive during food … Continue reading Highlights: Comb Jelly Becomes Cannibal During Food Shortage

Highlights: Controlling Gene Expression With Electricity

Image by 2427999 from Pixabay Researchers are figuring out how to use electricity to control gene expression. A diabetic person might one day use a mobile app on their smartphone after a meal to send a signal to their implant and release insulin into the blood.The research is led by Prof. Martin Fussenegger of the … Continue reading Highlights: Controlling Gene Expression With Electricity