Trans Fats (OpenStax Biology 2e)
The food industry artificially hydrogenates oils to make them semi-solid and of a consistency desirable for many processed food products. Simply speaking, hydrogen gas is bubbled through oils to solidify them. During this hydrogenation process, double bonds of the cis– conformation in the hydrocarbon chain may convert to double bonds in the trans– conformation.– What is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain?
Margarine, some types of peanut butter, and shortening are examples of artificially hydrogenated trans fats. Recent studies have shown that an increase in trans fats in the human diet may lead to higher levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), or “bad” cholesterol, which in turn may lead to plaque deposition in the arteries, resulting in heart disease. Many fast food restaurants have recently banned using trans fats, and food labels are required to display the trans fat content.People living in areas that restrict trans fats in foods had fewer hospitalizations for heart attack and stroke compared to residents in areas without restrictions, according to a new study conducted by researchers at the University of Chicago Medicine and Yale School of Medicine.
Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology-2e
Date Published: March 5, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Beatrice A. Golomb, Marcella A. Evans, Halbert L. White, Joel E. Dimsdale, Thomas Langmann. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032175 Abstract: Dietary trans fatty acids (dTFA) are primarily synthetic compounds that have been introduced only recently; little is known about their behavioral effects. dTFA inhibit production of omega-3 fatty acids, … Continue reading
Date Published: June 17, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Beatrice Alexandra Golomb, Alexis K. Bui, Thomas Langmann. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128129 Abstract: We sought to assess the relation of dietary trans fatty acid (dTFA) consumption to word-memory. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 1999-2005 UCSD Statin Study. Participants were 1018 adult men and non-procreative women age … Continue reading
Research Article: The Relation between Erythrocyte Trans Fat and Triglyceride, VLDL- and HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations Depends on Polyunsaturated Fat
Date Published: October 15, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Edmond K. Kabagambe, Jose M. Ordovas, Paul N. Hopkins, Michael Y. Tsai, Donna K. Arnett, Yiqing Song. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047430 Abstract: Trans fatty acids (TFA) lower HDL and increase triglyceride concentrations while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) lower triglycerides and may decrease HDL concentrations. The effect of the … Continue reading
Research Article: Quantifying the Socio-Economic Benefits of Reducing Industrial Dietary Trans Fats: Modelling Study
Date Published: August 6, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, Julia Critchley, Simon Capewell, Martin O’Flaherty, Peter H. Backx. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132524 Abstract: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) remains a leading cause of UK mortality, generating a large and unequal burden of disease. Dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) represent a powerful CHD risk factor, yet … Continue reading