Outcomes of Glycolysis

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Glycolysis_metabolic_pathway_3_annotated.svg OpenStax Biology 2e Glycolysis begins with glucose and produces two pyruvate molecules, four new ATP molecules, and two molecules of NADH. (Note: two ATP molecules are used in the first half of the pathway to prepare the six-carbon ring for cleavage, so the cell has a net gain of two ATP molecules and two NADH … Continue reading Outcomes of Glycolysis

Second Half of Glycolysis (Energy-Releasing Steps)

The second half of glycolysis involves phosphorylation without ATP investment (step 6) and produces two NADH and four ATP molecules per glucose.Source: OpenStax Biology 2e OpenStax Biology 2e Glycolysis has cost the cell two ATP molecules and produced two small, three-carbon sugar molecules. Both of these molecules will proceed through the second half of the … Continue reading Second Half of Glycolysis (Energy-Releasing Steps)


Otto Meyerhof. One of the main scientist involved in completing the puzzle of glycolysis. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1922/meyerhof.html. Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17970748 OpenStax Biology 2e Nearly all of the energy used by living cells comes to them in the bonds of the sugar glucose. Glycolysis is the first step in the breakdown of glucose to extract energy for cellular metabolism. In … Continue reading Glycolysis

ATP Structure and Function

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) has three phosphate groups that can be removed by hydrolysis (addition of H2O) to form ADP (adenosine diphosphate) or AMP (adenosine monophosphate). The negative charges on the phosphate group naturally repel each other, requiring energy to bond them together and releasing energy when these bonds are broken.Source: OpenStax Biology 2e OpenStax Biology … Continue reading ATP Structure and Function

Induced Fit and Enzyme Function

According to the induced-fit model, both enzyme and substrate undergo dynamic conformational changes upon binding. The enzyme contorts the substrate into its transition state, thereby increasing the reaction's rate.Source: OpenStax Biology 2e OpenStax Biology 2e For many years, scientists thought that enzyme-substrate binding took place in a simple “lock-and-key” fashion. This model asserted that the … Continue reading Induced Fit and Enzyme Function