Community Ecology


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OpenStax Biology 2e

A biological community consists of the different species within an area, typically a three-dimensional space, and the interactions within and among these species. Community ecologists are interested in the processes driving these interactions and their consequences. Questions about conspecific interactions often focus on competition among members of the same species for a limited resource. Ecologists also study interactions between various species; members of different species are called heterospecifics. Examples of heterospecific interactions include predation, parasitism, herbivory, competition, and pollination. These interactions can have regulating effects on population sizes and can impact ecological and evolutionary processes affecting diversity.

For example, Karner blue butterfly larvae form mutualistic relationships with ants (especially Formica spp). Mutualism is a form of long-term relationship that has coevolved between two species and from which each species benefits. For mutualism to exist between individual organisms, each species must receive some benefit from the other as a consequence of the relationship. Researchers have shown that there is an increase in survival when ants protect Karner blue butterfly larvae (caterpillars) from predaceous insects and spiders, an act known as “tending.” This might be because the larvae spend less time in each life stage when tended by ants, which provides an advantage for the larvae. Meanwhile, to attract the ants, the Karner blue butterfly larvae secrete ant-like pheromones and a carbohydrate-rich substance that is an important energy source for the ants. Both the Karner blue larvae and the ants benefit from their interaction, although the species of attendant ants may be partially opportunistic and vary over the range of the butterfly.


Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at:

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