OpenStax Biology 2e
A nephrologist studies and deals with diseases of the kidneys—both those that cause kidney failure (such as diabetes) and the conditions that are produced by kidney disease (such as hypertension). Blood pressure, blood volume, and changes in electrolyte balance come under the purview of a nephrologist.
Nephrologists usually work with other physicians who refer patients to them or consult with them about specific diagnoses and treatment plans. Patients are usually referred to a nephrologist for symptoms such as blood or protein in the urine, very high blood pressure, kidney stones, or renal failure.
Nephrology is a subspecialty of internal medicine. To become a nephrologist, medical school is followed by additional training to become certified in internal medicine. An additional two or more years is spent specifically studying kidney disorders and their accompanying effects on the body.
Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology-2e