Organismal Ecology

Full skill ahead. Online video courses from $9.99

Related Posts


Photo depicts a Karner blue butterfly, which has light blue wings with gold ovals and black dots around the edges.
The Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) is a rare butterfly that lives only in open areas with few trees or shrubs, such as pine barrens and oak savannas. It can only lay its eggs on lupine plants. (credit: modification of work by J & K Hollingsworth, USFWS)

OpenStax Biology 2e

Researchers studying ecology at the organismal level are interested in the adaptations that enable individuals to live in specific habitats. These adaptations can be morphological, physiological, and behavioral. For instance, the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) is considered a specialist because the females only oviposit (that is, lay eggs) on wild lupine (Lupinus perennis). This specific requirement and adaptation means that the Karner blue butterfly is completely dependent on the presence of wild lupine plants for its survival.

After hatching, the (first instar) caterpillars emerge and spend four to six weeks feeding solely on wild lupine. The caterpillars pupate as a chrysalis to undergo the final stage of metamorphosis and emerge as butterflies after about four weeks. The adult butterflies feed on the nectar of flowers of wild lupine and other plant species, such as milkweeds. Generally, there are two broods of the Karner blue each year.

A researcher interested in studying Karner blue butterflies at the organismal level might, in addition to asking questions about egg laying requirements, ask questions about the butterflies’ preferred thoracic flight temperature (a physiological question), or the behavior of the caterpillars when they are at different larval stages (a behavioral question).

This photo depicts a wild lupine flower, which is long and thin with clam-shaped petals radiating out from the center. The bottom third of the flower is blue, the middle is pink and blue, and the top is green.
The wild lupine (Lupinus perennis) is the only known host plant for the Karner blue butterfly. Source: OpenStax Biology 2e

Source:

Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology-2e


Advertisements
Advertisements


0 0 vote
Article Rating
Subscribe
Notify of
guest
0 Comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments