Mental Illnesses


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OpenStax Biology 2e

Mental illnesses are nervous system disorders that result in problems with thinking, mood, or relating with other people. These disorders are severe enough to affect a person’s quality of life and often make it difficult for people to perform the routine tasks of daily living. Debilitating mental disorders plague approximately 12.5 million Americans (about 1 in 17 people) at an annual cost of more than $300 billion. There are several types of mental disorders including schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and phobias, post-traumatic stress disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), among others. The American Psychiatric Association publishes the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (or DSM), which describes the symptoms required for a patient to be diagnosed with a particular mental disorder. Each newly released version of the DSM contains different symptoms and classifications as scientists learn more about these disorders, their causes, and how they relate to each other.


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Research Article: Economic burden of the therapeutic management of mental illnesses and its effect on household purchasing power

Date Published: September 10, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Afis A. Agboola, Oluwaseun T. Esan, Oluwasegun T. Afolabi, Taiwo A. Soyinka, Adedunmola O. Oluwaranti, Adeniji Adetayo, Tomi F. Akinyemiju. Abstract Cost or burden of illness studies for mental illnesses has helped define the magnitude of their negative effects on the household, community … Continue reading

Research Article: Lowering Cardiovascular Disease Risk for People with Severe Mental Illnesses in Primary Care: A Focus Group Study

Date Published: August 28, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Alexandra Burton, David Osborn, Lou Atkins, Susan Michie, Ben Gray, Fiona Stevenson, Hazel Gilbert, Kate Walters, Fiona Harris. Abstract People with severe mental illnesses die early from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is lacking regarding effective primary care based interventions to tackle this problem. To … Continue reading

Research Article: Psychometric Evaluation of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale for Patients with Mental Illnesses: Measurement Invariance across Time

Date Published: June 2, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Chih-Cheng Chang, Tsung-Hsien Wu, Chih-Yin Chen, Jung-Der Wang, Chung-Ying Lin, Nori Takei. Abstract The current investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale in a sample of patients with mental illness. In addition to the internal consistency, … Continue reading

Research Article: Health Risks and Changes in Self-Efficacy Following Community Health Screening of Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses

Date Published: April 13, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Judith A. Cook, Lisa A. Razzano, Margaret A. Swarbrick, Jessica A. Jonikas, Chantelle Yost, Larisa Burke, Pamela J. Steigman, Alberto Santos, James Coyne. Abstract Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. … Continue reading

Research Article: Determinants of clinical, functional and personal recovery for people with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses: A cross-sectional analysis

Date Published: September 18, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Bert-Jan Roosenschoon, Astrid M. Kamperman, Mathijs L. Deen, Jaap van Weeghel, Cornelis L. Mulder, Sinan Guloksuz. Abstract To analyze the relationships between insight, medication adherence, addiction, coping and social support—components of Illness Management and Recovery (IMR)—as determinants of clinical, functional and personal recovery … Continue reading

Research Article: Perspectives on Sleep, Sleep Problems, and Their Treatment, in People with Serious Mental Illnesses: A Systematic Review

Date Published: September 22, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Sophie Faulkner, Penny Bee, Berthold Langguth. Abstract Sleep problems are common in people with serious mental illness, and impact negatively on functioning and wellbeing. To understand the development of sleep problems, their maintenance, and their treatment, an in depth understanding of patient perspectives … Continue reading

Research Article: Is India ready for mental health apps (MHApps)? A quantitative-qualitative exploration of caregivers’ perspective on smartphone-based solutions for managing severe mental illnesses in low resource settings

Date Published: September 19, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Koushik Sinha Deb, Anupriya Tuli, Mamta Sood, Rakesh Chadda, Rohit Verma, Saurabh Kumar, Ragul Ganesh, Pushpendra Singh, Andrew Soundy. Abstract Mobile application based delivery of psycho-social interventions may help reduce the treatment gap for severe mental illnesses (SMIs) and decrease the burden on … Continue reading

Research Article: Evidence for the effectiveness of police-based pre-booking diversion programs in decriminalizing mental illness: A systematic literature review

Date Published: June 19, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Carolyn S. Dewa, Desmond Loong, Austin Trujillo, Sarah Bonato, Iratxe Puebla. Abstract People with mental illnesses are at a significantly greater risk of police arrest than the general population. This pattern of arrests has been associated with a phenomenon referred to as the … Continue reading

Research Article: Further Psychometric Evaluation of the Self-Stigma Scale-Short: Measurement Invariance across Mental Illness and Gender

Date Published: February 6, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Tsung-Hsien Wu, Chih-Cheng Chang, Chih-Yin Chen, Jung-Der Wang, Chung-Ying Lin, Pallab Kumar Maulik. Abstract This study cross-validated the factor structure of the Self-Stigma Scale-Short (SSS-S) in a cohort of patients with mental illness in southern Taiwan. The measurement invariance of the SSS-S factor … Continue reading