Q&A: What Are M2 Macrophages?

  • M2 macrophages are considered “healers” compared to the M1 “killer” macrophages.
  • M2 macrophages are recruited in wound healing and debris scavenging, but have also play a role in promoting tumorigenesis.
  • M2 macrophages are characterized by their involvement in parasite control, tissue remodeling, immune regulation, tumor promotion and efficient phagocytic activity.





Research Article: Macrophage Polarisation: an Immunohistochemical Approach for Identifying M1 and M2 Macrophages

Date Published: November 15, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Mário Henrique M. Barros, Franziska Hauck, Johannes H. Dreyer, Bettina Kempkes, Gerald Niedobitek, Marco Idzko. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080908 Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th) 1 responses and show tumoricidal … Continue reading

Research Article: Novel Markers to Delineate Murine M1 and M2 Macrophages

Date Published: December 23, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Kyle A. Jablonski, Stephanie A. Amici, Lindsay M. Webb, Juan de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Phillip G. Popovich, Santiago Partida-Sanchez, Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano, Michal A Olszewski. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145342 Classically (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages exhibit distinct phenotypes and functions. It has been difficult to dissect macrophage … Continue reading

Research Article: SMAD-PI3K-Akt-mTOR Pathway Mediates BMP-7 Polarization of Monocytes into M2 Macrophages

Date Published: December 20, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Crystal Rocher, Dinender K. Singla, Firoze Khan. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084009 Previously we demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) treatment polarizes monocytes into M2 macrophages and increases the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Despite these findings, the mechanisms for the observed BMP-7 induced monocyte polarization into M2 … Continue reading

Research Article: Negative Immune Regulator TIPE2 Promotes M2 Macrophage Differentiation through the Activation of PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway

Date Published: January 25, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Ruiling Liu, Tingting Fan, Wenwen Geng, Youhai H. Chen, Qingguo Ruan, Cui Zhang, Marco Falasca. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170666 Macrophages play important roles in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Classically activated macrophages and alternatively activated macrophages are the two major forms of … Continue reading

Research Article: Alternatively Activated (M2) Macrophage Phenotype Is Inducible by Endothelin-1 in Cultured Human Macrophages

Date Published: November 15, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Stefano Soldano, Carmen Pizzorni, Sabrina Paolino, Amelia Chiara Trombetta, Paola Montagna, Renata Brizzolara, Barbara Ruaro, Alberto Sulli, Maurizio Cutolo, Gernot Zissel. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166433 Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages are phenotypically characterized by the expression of specific markers, mainly macrophage scavenger receptors (CD204 and CD163) and … Continue reading

Research Article: Dietary Oleic Acid Increases M2 Macrophages in the Mesenteric Adipose Tissue

Date Published: September 30, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Christina Camell, C. Wayne Smith, Josep Bassaganya-Riera. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075147 Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and … Continue reading

Research Article: Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition Blocks M2 Macrophage Differentiation and Suppresses Metastasis in Murine Breast Cancer Model

Date Published: May 7, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Yi-Rang Na, Yi-Na Yoon, Da-In Son, Seung-Hyeok Seok, Fabrizio Mattei. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063451 Tumor cells are often associated with abundant macrophages that resemble the alternatively activated M2 subset. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and promote metastasis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition is known to prevent breast … Continue reading

Research Article: The Role of M2 Macrophages in the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease following Acute Kidney Injury

Date Published: December 2, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Myung-Gyu Kim, Sun Chul Kim, Yoon Sook Ko, Hee Young Lee, Sang-Kyung Jo, Wonyong Cho, Jean-Claude Dussaule. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143961 Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major risk factor in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the mechanisms linking AKI to CKD remain … Continue reading

Research Article: Extracellular Mycobacterial DnaK Polarizes Macrophages to the M2-Like Phenotype

Date Published: November 24, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Rafael L. Lopes, Thiago J. Borges, Jessica F. Araújo, Nathana G. Pinho, Letícia S. Bergamin, Ana Maria O. Battastini, Stéfanie P. Muraro, Ana Paula D. Souza, Rafael F. Zanin, Cristina Bonorino, Pere-Joan Cardona. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113441 Macrophages are myeloid cells that play an essential role … Continue reading


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