Separation of Hydrogen and Oxygen from Water

The decomposition of water is shown at the macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels. The battery provides an electric current (microscopic) that decomposes water. At the macroscopic level, the liquid separates into the gases hydrogen (on the left) and oxygen (on the right). Symbolically, this change is presented by showing how liquid H2O separates into H2 and … Continue reading Separation of Hydrogen and Oxygen from Water

What are Atoms and Molecules?

(a) This photograph shows a gold nugget. (b) A scanning-tunneling microscope (STM) can generate views of the surfaces of solids, such as this image of a gold crystal. Each sphere represents one gold atom. (credit a: modification of work by United States Geological Survey; credit b: modification of work by “Erwinrossen”/Wikimedia Commons) OpenStax Chemistry 2e … Continue reading What are Atoms and Molecules?

The Classification of Matter: Mixtures and Pure Compounds

(a) The compound mercury(II) oxide, (b) when heated, (c) decomposes into silvery droplets of liquid mercury and invisible oxygen gas. (credit: modification of work by Paul Flowers) OpenStax Chemistry 2e Matter can be classified into several categories. Two broad categories are mixtures and pure substances. A pure substance has a constant composition. All specimens of a pure … Continue reading The Classification of Matter: Mixtures and Pure Compounds

The Domains of Chemistry

(a) Moisture in the air, icebergs, and the ocean represent water in the macroscopic domain. (b) At the molecular level (microscopic domain), gas molecules are far apart and disorganized, solid water molecules are close together and organized, and liquid molecules are close together and disorganized. (c) The formula H2O symbolizes water, and (g), (s), and … Continue reading The Domains of Chemistry

Chemistry: The Central Science

Knowledge of chemistry is central to understanding a wide range of scientific disciplines. This diagram shows just some of the interrelationships between chemistry and other fields. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e OpenStax Chemistry 2e Chemistry is sometimes referred to as “the central science” due to its interconnectedness with a vast array of other STEM disciplines (STEM … Continue reading Chemistry: The Central Science

The Scientific Method of Chemistry

The scientific method follows a process similar to the one shown in this diagram. All the key components are shown, in roughly the right order. Scientific progress is seldom neat and clean: It requires open inquiry and the reworking of questions and ideas in response to findings. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e OpenStax Chemistry 2e Chemistry … Continue reading The Scientific Method of Chemistry

Research Highlights: Dapagliflozin Correlated with Low Risk of Unfavorable Kidney and Cardiovascular Outcomes

Glomerular filtration rate categories. Image Source: https://www.hepatitisc.uw.edu/go/key-populations-situations/treament-renal-impairment/core-concept/all Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa2024816 Patients with chronic kidney disease have a high risk of unfavorable kidney and cardiovascular consequences. Researchers do not know the effect of dapagliflozin in patients (with or without type 2 diabetes) with chronic kidney disease. Dapagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor indicated for managing … Continue reading Research Highlights: Dapagliflozin Correlated with Low Risk of Unfavorable Kidney and Cardiovascular Outcomes

Research Highlights: IgG Auto-Antibodies Neutralize The Ability of Interferons to Block COVID-19 Viral Infection

Infected cell releases interferons to send signal to other cells. Image Source: https://opened.cuny.edu/courseware/lesson/824/student/?task=3 Original Article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32972996/ Interindividual clinical variability in the course of COVID-19 viral infection is extremely large. The study reports that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia had neutralizing IgG auto-antibodies against IFN-ω (13 patients), the 13 types of … Continue reading Research Highlights: IgG Auto-Antibodies Neutralize The Ability of Interferons to Block COVID-19 Viral Infection

Research Highlights: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Facial abnormalities associated with fetal alcohol syndrome and alcohol-related birth defects. Image Source: https://sites.duke.edu/apep/module-5-alcohol-and-babies/content-what-are-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders/ Original Article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3756137/ The unfavorable effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy have long been known. A formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was in 1973. The distinction of the wide range of effects that can be caused by prenatal … Continue reading Research Highlights: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder