Research Highlights: Bones and Teeth from Baby Tyrannosaurids Provide Clues of their Hatchling Size

Image by Bianca van Dijk from Pixabay Bones and Teeth from Baby Tyrannosaurids Provides Clues of their Hatchling Size Tyrannosaurid is a family of large bipedal carnivorous theropod dinosaurs of the Late Cretaceous. The family includes the well-known tyrannosaur. They have reduced-size forelegs. Tyrannosaurids were the apex predators during their time. Their status as dominant … Continue reading Research Highlights: Bones and Teeth from Baby Tyrannosaurids Provide Clues of their Hatchling Size

Research Highlights: Researchers Discovered Lair of an Ambush-Predatory Worm from 20 Million Years Ago

Schematic three-dimensional model of the feeding behavior of Bobbit worms and the proposed formation of Pennichnus formosae. Image Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-79311-0 Researchers Discovered Lair of an Ambush-Predatory Worm from 20 Million Years Ago Eunicid polychaetes have long, segmented bodies, and strong denticulated jaws. They are widely distributed in tropical to temperate shallow marine to shores. The … Continue reading Research Highlights: Researchers Discovered Lair of an Ambush-Predatory Worm from 20 Million Years Ago

Multiple Covalent Bonding

Figure 1. In ethene, each carbon atom is sp2 hybridized, and the sp2 orbitals and the p orbital are singly occupied. The hybrid orbitals overlap to form σ bonds, while the p orbitals on each carbon atom overlap to form a π bond. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Multiple Covalent Bonding (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The hybrid orbital model appears to account well for the geometry … Continue reading Multiple Covalent Bonding

Assignment of Hybrid Orbitals to Central Atoms

Figure 1 The shapes of hybridized orbital sets are consistent with the electron-pair geometries. For example, an atom surrounded by three regions of electron density is sp2 hybridized, and the three sp2 orbitals are arranged in a trigonal planar fashion. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Assignment of Hybrid Orbitals to Central Atoms (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The hybridization of an atom is determined … Continue reading Assignment of Hybrid Orbitals to Central Atoms

sp3d and sp3d2 Hybridization

Figure 1. The three compounds pictured exhibit sp3d hybridization in the central atom and a trigonal bipyramid form. SF4 and ClF4+ have one lone pair of electrons on the central atom, and ClF3 has two lone pairs giving it the T-shape shown. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e sp3d and sp3d2 Hybridization (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) To describe the five bonding orbitals in a trigonal bipyramidal … Continue reading sp3d and sp3d2 Hybridization

sp3 Hybridization

Figure 1. The hybridization of an s orbital (blue) and three p orbitals (red) produces four equivalent sp3 hybridized orbitals (yellow) oriented at 109.5° with respect to each other. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e sp3 Hybridization (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The valence orbitals of an atom surrounded by a tetrahedral arrangement of bonding pairs and lone pairs consist of a set of four sp3 hybrid orbitals. … Continue reading sp3 Hybridization

sp2 Hybridization

Figure 1. The hybridization of an s orbital (blue) and two p orbitals (red) produces three equivalent sp2 hybridized orbitals (yellow) oriented at 120° with respect to each other. The remaining unhybridized p orbital is not shown here, but is located along the z axis. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e sp2 Hybridization (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The valence orbitals of a central atom surrounded by three regions … Continue reading sp2 Hybridization

sp Hybridization

Figure 1. Hybridization of an s orbital (blue) and a p orbital (red) of the same atom produces two sp hybrid orbitals (yellow). Each hybrid orbital is oriented primarily in just one direction. Note that each sp orbital contains one lobe that is significantly larger than the other. The set of two sp orbitals are oriented at 180°, which is consistent with the geometry for two domains. … Continue reading sp Hybridization