Variation in Electron Affinities

Figure 1. This version of the periodic table displays the electron affinity values (in kJ/mol) for selected elements. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Variation in Electron Affinities (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The electron affinity (EA) is the energy change for the process of adding an electron to a gaseous atom to form an anion (negative ion). This process can be either … Continue reading Variation in Electron Affinities

Variation in Ionization Energies

Figure 1. The first ionization energy of the elements in the first five periods are plotted against their atomic number. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Variation in Ionization Energies (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from a gaseous atom in its ground state is called its first ionization energy (IE1). The … Continue reading Variation in Ionization Energies

Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

Figure 1. This version of the periodic table shows the outer-shell electron configuration of each element. Note that down each group, the configuration is often similar. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The periodic table arranges atoms based on increasing atomic number so that elements with the same … Continue reading Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

The Aufbau Principle

Figure 1. This diagram depicts the energy order for atomic orbitals and is useful for deriving ground-state electron configurations. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e The Aufbau Principle (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) To determine the electron configuration for any particular atom, we can “build” the structures in the order of atomic numbers. Beginning with hydrogen, and continuing across the periods … Continue reading The Aufbau Principle

Research Highlights: Cancer Cells Evade Death from Chemotherapy

Image Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.11.018 Cancer Cells Evade Death from Chemotherapy Original Article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.11.018 Cancer cells enter a state where it can evade death from chemotherapy and targeted agents.During this death evasion state, therapy failure and tumor relapse may occur.Researchers identify and characterize the cancer cell death evasion in response to chemotherapy.Researchers utilized cellular barcoding and mathematical … Continue reading Research Highlights: Cancer Cells Evade Death from Chemotherapy