Rare Disease: Aquagenic urticaria
- Aquagenic urticaria is a rare disease in which hives develop when skin comes in contact with water.
- The disease mostly affects women and symptoms develop at the start of puberty.
- Currently, the exact cause is unknown.
- Symptoms include small, red or skin-colored welts with defined edges usually found on the neck, upper trunk, and arms.
- The disease is usually symptomatic with mild to severe pruritus and a burning sensation.
- Water provocation test is used to diagnose the disease.
- Systemic antihistamines are the first-line treatment, with anticholinergics, phototherapy, or barrier cream.
- One of theories proposed by scientists is that a reaction between water and a substance found in or on the skin produced a toxic substance which leads to the development of hives.
Seol, J. E., Kim, D. H., Park, S. H., Kang, J. N., Sung, H. S., & Kim, H. (2017). Aquagenic Urticaria Diagnosed by the Water Provocation Test and the Results of Histopathologic Examination. Annals of dermatology, 29(3), 341–345. https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2017.29.3.341
Wassef, C., Laureano, A., & Schwartz, R. A. (2017). Aquagenic Urticaria: A Perplexing Physical Phenomenon. Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC, 25(3), 234–237.