High Temperature Superconductors


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A graph is shown. “Temperature (K)” appears on the horizontal axis, with axis labels present at 0, 100, 200, and 300. The vertical axis is labeled, “Resistance.” This axis begins at 0 and no additional markings are given. The upper end of this axis is terminated with an arrow head pointing upward unlike the horizontal axis. From the origin, a red line segment extends right to a point just left of 100 K. From this point, the plot continues with a vertical red line segment about five sixths of the way to the top of the graph. From the top of this line segment, another red line segment extends up and nearly to the top of the graph to the right.
Figure 1. The resistance of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 varies with temperature. Note how the resistance falls to zero below 92 K, when the substance becomes superconducting. Source: Openstax Chemistry 2e

High Temperature Superconductors (Openstax Chemistry 2e)

A superconductor is a substance that conducts electricity with no resistance. This lack of resistance means that there is no energy loss during the transmission of electricity. This would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of electricity.

Most currently used, commercial superconducting materials, such as NbTi and Nb3Sn, do not become superconducting until they are cooled below 23 K (−250 °C). This requires the use of liquid helium, which has a boiling temperature of 4 K and is expensive and difficult to handle. The cost of liquid helium has deterred the widespread application of superconductors.

One of the most exciting scientific discoveries of the 1980s was the characterization of compounds that exhibit superconductivity at temperatures above 90 K. (Compared to liquid helium, 90 K is a high temperature.) Typical among the high-temperature superconducting materials are oxides containing yttrium (or one of several rare earth elements), barium, and copper in a 1:2:3 ratio. The formula of the ionic yttrium compound is YBa2Cu3O7.

The new materials become superconducting at temperatures close to 90 K (Figure 1), temperatures that can be reached by cooling with liquid nitrogen (boiling temperature of 77 K). Not only are liquid nitrogen-cooled materials easier to handle, but the cooling costs are also about 1000 times lower than for liquid helium.

Although the brittle, fragile nature of these materials presently hampers their commercial applications, they have tremendous potential that researchers are hard at work improving their processes to help realize. Superconducting transmission lines would carry current for hundreds of miles with no loss of power due to resistance in the wires. This could allow generating stations to be located in areas remote from population centers and near the natural resources necessary for power production. The first project demonstrating the viability of high-temperature superconductor power transmission was established in New York in 2008.

Researchers are also working on using this technology to develop other applications, such as smaller and more powerful microchips. In addition, high-temperature superconductors can be used to generate magnetic fields for applications such as medical devices, magnetic levitation trains, and containment fields for nuclear fusion reactors (Figure 2).

A photo is shown of a white levitation train on its tracks. A building appears to the right in the background.
Figure 2. (a) This magnetic levitation train (or maglev) uses superconductor technology to move along its tracks. (b) A magnet can be levitated using a dish like this as a superconductor. (credit a: modification of work by Alex Needham; credit b: modification of work by Kevin Jarrett)


Flowers, P., Theopold, K., Langley, R., & Robinson, W. R. (2019, February 14). Chemistry 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e


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