Boiling Points of Liquids

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A graph is shown where the x-axis is labeled “Temperature ( degree sign, C )” and has values of 200 to 1000 in increments of 200 and the y-axis is labeled “Pressure ( k P a )” and has values of 20 to 120 in increments of 20. A horizontal dotted line extends across the graph at point 780 on the y-axis while three vertical dotted lines extend from points 35, 78, and 100 to meet the horizontal dotted line. Four lines are graphed. The first line, labeled “ethyl ether,” begins at the point “0 , 200” and extends in a slight curve to point “45, 1000” while the second line, labeled “ethanol”, extends from point “0, 20” to point “88, 1000” in a more extreme curve. The third line, labeled “water,” begins at the point “0, 0” and extends in a curve to point “108, 1000” while the fourth line, labeled “ethylene glycol,” extends from point “80, 0” to point “140, 100” in a very shallow curve.
Figure 1. The boiling points of liquids are the temperatures at which their equilibrium vapor pressures equal the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere. Normal boiling points are those corresponding to a pressure of 1 atm (101.3 kPa.) Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e

Boiling Points of Liquids (OpenStax Chemistry 2e)

When the vapor pressure increases enough to equal the external atmospheric pressure, the liquid reaches its boiling point. The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its equilibrium vapor pressure is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by its gaseous surroundings. For liquids in open containers, this pressure is that due to the earth’s atmosphere. The normal boiling point of a liquid is defined as its boiling point when surrounding pressure is equal to 1 atm (101.3 kPa). Figure 1 shows the variation in vapor pressure with temperature for several different substances. Considering the definition of boiling point, these curves may be seen as depicting the dependence of a liquid’s boiling point on surrounding pressure.

The quantitative relation between a substance’s vapor pressure and its temperature is described by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation:

where ΔHvap is the enthalpy of vaporization for the liquid, R is the gas constant, and A is a constant whose value depends on the chemical identity of the substance. Temperature T must be in Kelvin in this equation. This equation is often rearranged into logarithmic form to yield the linear equation:

This linear equation may be expressed in a two-point format that is convenient for use in various computations, as demonstrated in the example exercises that follow. If at temperature T1, the vapor pressure is P1, and at temperature T2, the vapor pressure is P2, the corresponding linear equations are:

Since the constant, A, is the same, these two equations may be rearranged to isolate ln A and then set them equal to one another:

which can be combined into:

Source:

Flowers, P., Theopold, K., Langley, R., & Robinson, W. R. (2019, February 14). Chemistry 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e

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