Graphene: Material of the Future

Advertisements
Advertisements

Related Posts:


Three pairs of images are shown, each composed of a photo and a diagram. In the first pair, the photo shows a close-up view of a colorless, multi-faceted crystal and the diagram shows many gray spheres bonded together in a net-like structure. The caption below this pair reads “diamond.” In the second pair, the photo shows a rough textured, dark gray solid while the image shows four horizontal sheets, composed of interlocking black spheres, lying atop one another. This pair has a caption that reads “graphite.” The third pair shows a photo of twelve black hexagons on a yellow background where two of the hexagons are encircled by a gray border and a caption of “1.4 times 10, superscript negative 10, m, Distance between center of atoms” and an image of many black hexagons evenly arranged on a yellow background. The caption below this pair of images reads “Graphite surface.”
Figure 1. Diamond is extremely hard because of the strong bonding between carbon atoms in all directions. Graphite (in pencil lead) rubs off onto paper due to the weak attractions between the carbon layers. An image of a graphite surface shows the distance between the centers of adjacent carbon atoms. (credit left photo: modification of work by Steve Jurvetson; credit middle photo: modification of work by United States Geological Survey)

Graphene: Material of the Future (OpenStax Chemistry 2e)

Carbon is an essential element in our world. The unique properties of carbon atoms allow the existence of carbon-based life forms such as ourselves. Carbon forms a huge variety of substances that we use on a daily basis, including those shown in Figure 1. You may be familiar with diamond and graphite, the two most common allotropes of carbon. (Allotropes are different structural forms of the same element.) Diamond is one of the hardest-known substances, whereas graphite is soft enough to be used as pencil lead. These very different properties stem from the different arrangements of the carbon atoms in the different allotropes.

You may be less familiar with a recently discovered form of carbon: graphene. Graphene was first isolated in 2004 by using tape to peel off thinner and thinner layers from graphite. It is essentially a single sheet (one atom thick) of graphite. Graphene, illustrated in Figure 2, is not only strong and lightweight, but it is also an excellent conductor of electricity and heat. These properties may prove very useful in a wide range of applications, such as vastly improved computer chips and circuits, better batteries and solar cells, and stronger and lighter structural materials. The 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for their pioneering work with graphene.

Four images are shown. In the upper image, labeled “Graphene sheet,” a box is drawn around a sheet of interconnected hexagonal rings. In the lower left image, a sphere is composed of hexagonal rings linked together and is labeled “Buckyball.” In the lower middle image, a tube is shown that is composed of many hexagonal rings joined together and is labeled “Nanotube.” In the lower right image, four horizontal sheets composed of joined, hexagonal rings is shown and labeled “Stacked sheets.”
Figure 2. Graphene sheets can be formed into buckyballs, nanotubes, and stacked layers. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e

Source:

Flowers, P., Theopold, K., Langley, R., & Robinson, W. R. (2019, February 14). Chemistry 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e

Advertisements
Advertisements

Related Research

Research Article: Green conversion of graphene oxide to graphene nanosheets and its biosafety study

Date Published: February 3, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Adhiraj Dasgupta, Joy Sarkar, Manosij Ghosh, Amartya Bhattacharya, Anita Mukherjee, Dipankar Chattopadhyay, Krishnendu Acharya, Yogendra Kumar Mishra. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0171607 Abstract: Chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to graphene employs the use of toxic and environmentally harmful reducing agents, hindering mass production of graphene which is … Continue reading

Research Article: Progress and Challenges in Transfer of Large‐Area Graphene Films

Date Published: February 04, 2016 Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Author(s): Yi Chen, Xiao‐Lei Gong, Jing‐Gang Gai. http://doi.org/10.1002/advs.201500343 Abstract: Graphene, the thinnest, strongest, and stiffest material with exceptional thermal conductivity and electron mobility, has increasingly received world‐wide attention in the past few years. These unique properties may lead to novel or improved technologies to … Continue reading

Research Article: Competing Interactions in DNA Assembly on Graphene

Date Published: April 12, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Saliha Akca, Ashkan Foroughi, Daniel Frochtzwajg, Henk W. Ch. Postma, Maxim Antopolsky. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018442 Abstract: We study the patterns that short strands of single-stranded DNA form on the top graphene surface of graphite. We find that the DNA assembles into two distinct patterns, small spherical particles … Continue reading

Research Article: The Way towards Ultrafast Growth of Single‐Crystal Graphene on Copper

Date Published: May 30, 2017 Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Author(s): Zhihong Zhang, Xiaozhi Xu, Lu Qiu, Shaoxin Wang, Tianwei Wu, Feng Ding, Hailin Peng, Kaihui Liu. http://doi.org/10.1002/advs.201700087 Abstract: The exceptional properties of graphene make it a promising candidate in the development of next‐generation electronic, optoelectronic, photonic and photovoltaic devices. A holy grail in … Continue reading

Research Article: Two‐Dimensional Fluorinated Graphene: Synthesis, Structures, Properties and Applications

Date Published: March 02, 2016 Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Author(s): Wei Feng, Peng Long, Yiyu Feng, Yu Li. http://doi.org/10.1002/advs.201500413 Abstract: Fluorinated graphene, an up‐rising member of the graphene family, combines a two‐dimensional layer‐structure, a wide bandgap, and high stability and attracts significant attention because of its unique nanostructure and carbon-fluorine bonds. Here, we … Continue reading