Equilibrium and Soft Drinks

Figure 1. Opening a soft-drink bottle lowers the CO2 pressure above the beverage, shifting the dissolution equilibrium and releasing dissolved CO2 from the beverage. (credit: modification of work by “D Coetzee”/Flickr) Equilibrium and Soft Drinks (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The connection between chemistry and carbonated soft drinks goes back to 1767 when Joseph Priestley (1733–1804) developed a method of infusing … Continue reading Equilibrium and Soft Drinks

Equilibrium Constants

Figure 1. Changes in concentrations and Qc for a chemical equilibrium achieved beginning with (a) a mixture of reactants only and (b) products only. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Equilibrium Constants (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The status of a reversible reaction is conveniently assessed by evaluating its reaction quotient (Q). For a reversible reaction described by the reaction quotient is derived directly … Continue reading Equilibrium Constants

Chemical Equilibria

Figure 1. (a) A sealed tube containing colorless N2O4 darkens as it decomposes to yield brown NO2. (b) Changes in concentration over time as the decomposition reaction achieves equilibrium. (c) At equilibrium, the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Chemical Equilibria (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) The convention for writing chemical equations involves placing reactant … Continue reading Chemical Equilibria

Automobile Catalytic Converters

Figure 1. A catalytic converter allows for the combustion of all carbon-containing compounds to carbon dioxide, while at the same time reducing the output of nitrogen oxide and other pollutants in emissions from gasoline-burning engines. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Automobile Catalytic Converters (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Scientists developed catalytic converters to reduce the amount of toxic emissions produced … Continue reading Automobile Catalytic Converters

Research Highlights: A Histone Variant Has Multiple Roles in Transcriptional Regulation

Image Source: https://www.oist.jp/ A Histone Variant Has Multiple Roles in Transcriptional Regulation May 29, 2021 A promoter is a site on DNA to which the RNA polymerase can bind to initiate the transcription.[1]Chromatin accessibility of a promoter is necessary for the regulation of transcriptional activity.Histones are proteins that provide structural support to a chromosome.[2]Long DNA … Continue reading Research Highlights: A Histone Variant Has Multiple Roles in Transcriptional Regulation

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency

Figure 1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is a rate-limiting enzyme for the metabolic pathway that supplies NADPH to cells. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) Enzymes in the human body act as catalysts for important chemical reactions in cellular metabolism. As such, a deficiency of a particular enzyme can translate to a life-threatening … Continue reading Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency

Homogeneous Catalysts

Mechanism for the hydrogenation of an alkene catalyzed by the homogeneous catalyst Wilkinson's catalyst. Source: By Smokefoot - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=88901695 Homogeneous Catalysts (OpenStax Chemistry 2e) A homogeneous catalyst is present in the same phase as the reactants. It interacts with a reactant to form an intermediate substance, which then decomposes or reacts with another … Continue reading Homogeneous Catalysts