Solutions of Solids in Liquids (OpenStax Chemistry 2e)
The dependence of solubility on temperature for a number of solids in water is shown by the solubility curves in Figure 1. Reviewing these data indicates a general trend of increasing solubility with temperature, although there are exceptions, as illustrated by the ionic compound cerium sulfate.
The temperature dependence of solubility can be exploited to prepare supersaturated solutions of certain compounds. A solution may be saturated with the compound at an elevated temperature (where the solute is more soluble) and subsequently cooled to a lower temperature without precipitating the solute. The resultant solution contains solute at a concentration greater than its equilibrium solubility at the lower temperature (i.e., it is supersaturated) and is relatively stable. Precipitation of the excess solute can be initiated by adding a seed crystal (see the video in the Link to Learning earlier in this module) or by mechanically agitating the solution. Some hand warmers, such as the one pictured in Figure 2, take advantage of this behavior.
Flowers, P., Theopold, K., Langley, R., & Robinson, W. R. (2019, February 14). Chemistry 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e
Date Published: July 01, 2014 Publisher: International Union of Crystallography Author(s): Nataliia Yu. Strutynska, Ivan V. Ogorodnyk, Oksana V. Livitska, Vyacheslav N. Baumer, Nikolay S. Slobodyanik. http://doi.org/10.1107/S1600536814013609 Abstract: The title compound, tetrapotassium tetra[nickel(II)/iron(III)] pentakis(orthophosphate), K3.84Ni0.78Fe3.19(PO4)5, has been obtained from a flux. The structure is isotypic with that of K4MgFe3(PO4)5. The three-dimensional framework is built up … Continue reading
Date Published: September 01, 2014 Publisher: International Union of Crystallography Author(s): Matthias Weil. http://doi.org/10.1107/S1600536814010216 Abstract: The title compound, di(strontium/lead) hexaaluminate, is a member of the solid solution series (Sr2-xPbx)Al6O11. It contains two statistically occupied M2+ (M = Sr, Pb) sites [both with site symmetries ..m; Sr:Pb occupancy ratios = 0.756 (2):0.244 (2) and 0.8968 (19):0.1032 (19)] that are located … Continue reading
Date Published: March 01, 2008 Publisher: International Union of Crystallography Author(s): Lilia Ktari, Mohamed Abdelhedi, Mohamed Dammak, Alain Cousson, Abdelwaheb Kolsi. http://doi.org/10.1107/S1600536808003425 Abstract: The title compound, sodium ammonium sulfate–telluric acid (1/1), Na0.39(NH4)1.61SO4·Te(OH)6, is isostructural with other solid solutions in the series M1−x(NH4)xSO4·Te(OH)6, where ammonium is partially replaced with an alkali metal (M = K, Rb … Continue reading
Date Published: October 01, 2019 Publisher: International Union of Crystallography Author(s): Rayko Simura, Hisanori Yamane. http://doi.org/10.1107/S2056989019012532 Abstract: BaCu2.6Zn2.4 has an α-SrZn5-type structure. Although the Ba atom is larger than the Sr atom, the cell volume of title compound is smaller than that of α-SrZn5. This can be attributed to the partial substitution of Cu atoms … Continue reading
Research Article: Crystal structures of the solid solutions Na3Zn0.912Cd0.088B5O10 and Na3Zn0.845Mg0.155B5O10
Date Published: November 01, 2017 Publisher: International Union of Crystallography Author(s): Xue-An Chen, Ya-Hua Zhang, Xin-An Chang, Wei-Qiang Xiao. http://doi.org/10.1107/S2056989017015249 Abstract: The solid solutions Na3Zn0.912Cd0.088B5O10 and Na3Zn0.845Mg0.155B5O10 adopt the orthorhombic form of the parent compound Na3ZnB5O10 where parts of the zinc cations are replaced by cadmium and magnesium cations, respectively. Partial Text Over the past … Continue reading