Unimolecular Elementary Reactions

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In this figure, structural formulas are used to illustrate a chemical reaction. On the left, a structural formula for cyclobutane is shown. This structure is composed of 4 C atoms connected with single bonds in a square shape. Each C atom is bonded to two other C atoms in the structure, leaving two bonds for H atoms pointing outward above, below, left, and right. An arrow points right to two identical ethane molecules with a plus symbol between them. Each of these molecules contains two C atoms connected with a double bond oriented vertically between them. The C atom at the top of these molecules has H atoms bonded above to the right and left. Similarly, the lower C atom has two H atoms bonded below to the right and left.
Figure 1. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e

Unimolecular Elementary Reactions (OpenStax Chemistry 2e)

The molecularity of an elementary reaction is the number of reactant species (atoms, molecules, or ions). For example, a unimolecular reaction involves the reaction of a single reactant species to produce one or more molecules of product:

The rate law for a unimolecular reaction is first order:

A unimolecular reaction may be one of several elementary reactions in a complex mechanism. For example, the reaction:

illustrates a unimolecular elementary reaction that occurs as one part of a two-step reaction mechanism as described above. However, some unimolecular reactions may be the only step of a single-step reaction mechanism. (In other words, an “overall” reaction may also be an elementary reaction in some cases.) For example, the gas-phase decomposition of cyclobutane, C4H8, to ethylene, C2H4, is represented by the chemical equation:

In this figure, structural formulas are used to illustrate a chemical reaction. On the left, a structural formula for cyclobutane is shown. This structure is composed of 4 C atoms connected with single bonds in a square shape. Each C atom is bonded to two other C atoms in the structure, leaving two bonds for H atoms pointing outward above, below, left, and right. An arrow points right to two identical ethane molecules with a plus symbol between them. Each of these molecules contains two C atoms connected with a double bond oriented vertically between them. The C atom at the top of these molecules has H atoms bonded above to the right and left. Similarly, the lower C atom has two H atoms bonded below to the right and left.

This equation represents the overall reaction observed, and it might also represent a legitimate unimolecular elementary reaction. The rate law predicted from this equation, assuming it is an elementary reaction, turns out to be the same as the rate law derived experimentally for the overall reaction, namely, one showing first-order behavior:

This agreement between observed and predicted rate laws is interpreted to mean that the proposed unimolecular, single-step process is a reasonable mechanism for the butadiene reaction.

Source:

Flowers, P., Theopold, K., Langley, R., & Robinson, W. R. (2019, February 14). Chemistry 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e

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